Skip to main content
7 votes

Why are human feces riskier than urine with regard to spreading diseases?

Many gut microbes are pathobionts or opportunistic pathogens — these organisms can be part of the normal gut flora (microbiome) of healthy individuals, but under the right (for them) circumstances (e....
tyersome's user avatar
  • 5,598
6 votes

Why are human feces riskier than urine with regard to spreading diseases?

Urine is contaminated with skin bacteria and possibly something excreted from your blood. A very tiny fraction of urine is microbial. Feces is basically a solid mass of undigested food, gut bacteria, ...
John's user avatar
  • 14.7k
5 votes

Why are human feces riskier than urine with regard to spreading diseases?

The kidney is essentially a filter which extracts dissolved waste products & water from the blood. It basically allows only molecular-sized things to pass, otherwise it would continually leak ...
jamesqf's user avatar
  • 3,643
4 votes

Neisseria meningitidis transformation into a pathogen

It's not like a strain of E. coli that may cause disease in immunosuppressed individuals yet is a part of normal microbiota for other people. Well, actually, it is kind of like that. The answer is ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
3 votes

Why are human feces riskier than urine with regard to spreading diseases?

I can only speak to what I am familiar with, but I would assume that the large majority of those viruses are bacteriophages. These bacteriophages, or "phages" for short, are viruses that infect ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 379
3 votes

How can a pathogenic bacterium be avirulent?

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic species. Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 is an avirulent strain of this species. Presumably this means that specific virulence genes that are present in virulent ...
Alan Boyd's user avatar
  • 22.8k
2 votes

How is TB harmful in HIV patients?

This is an interesting an useful question about host-pathogen interactions. For a general reference (for both hosts with and without a competent CD4+ T-cell response) see Cecil Medicine, Ch.332, and ...
De Novo's user avatar
  • 8,791
2 votes

Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

I can't think of any pathogenic organisms that are completely resistant to the immune system. Some bacteria that cause chronic diseases (e.g. tuberculosis) are relatively resistant, and a handful of ...
iayork's user avatar
  • 14.2k
2 votes
Accepted

Is there any non-pathogenic gram negative bacteria?

As Canadianer already mentioned in the comments, the majority of bacteria (this includes gram-negative bacteria) are non-pathogenic. I think a prime example is the human gut flora. You can find loads ...
Johnny's user avatar
  • 1,509
2 votes

How could be the concentration of airborne pathogens in a specific indoor space be measured?

I have no idea how practical it would be for your intended application, but people do estimate airborne concentrations of fungi and bacteria by sampling aerosols (i.e., filtering a volume of area to ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,364
1 vote

Can the innate immune system defeat a pathogen by itself? Fast enough that we don't develop antibodies, etc.?

Generally antibodies are formed, but it is possible that innate immune system has cleared out the pathogen. But antibodies will be formed even after that, as adaptive immune system has received the ...
Twinkle Sheen's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Are there any non-pathogenic gram-positive bacteria in human gut?

A recent Nature article, entitled A new genomic blueprint of the human gut microbiota, contains the following Figure: [Fig. 3 Phylogeny of reference and uncultured human gut bacterial genomes] I ...
David's user avatar
  • 26k
1 vote
Accepted

Availability of a database containing the proteins of Vibrio cholerae and their corresponding gene sequences

You want to go to PATRIC > Data > Download Tool. From the Taxonomy tree, find Vibrio cholerae, choose Type of annotation as either PATRIC/RefSeq or both, choose the type of file you want (gbk or faa) ...
FoldedChromatin's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Are there specific non-protein substances that pathogens release into their host?

Sticking my neck out (and expecting it to be bitten by a black swan) it appears that all the examples of toxins secreted by bacterial pathogens when they infect an animal host (exotoxins) are proteins....
David's user avatar
  • 26k

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible