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It is difficult to say, but it is likely due to disease. Many plant diseases have the effect of convincing plant tissues that they are some other organ than what they actually are, which leads to deformations. I was not able to find anything that looked as dramatic as the image that you show, but there are similar diseases in stone fruits that deform fruit: ...


6

It depends on the pathogen, delivery method, environment, etc. In most cases, a single pathogen is not enough to cause disease -- it may need many millions or billions -- but there are some cases where it does seem that a single pathogen can consistently cause infection. For example The minimum infectious dose of ASFV in liquid was 100 [i.e 1] 50% tissue ...


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Plant pathogens are not a health hazard to the experimenters. However, they can pose health hazards to plants and cause damage to ecosystem. There are plant biosafety levels: BL1-P up to BL4-P (also sometimes abbreviated as BSL-1P and so on). The four levels have an increasing order of stringency of containment. Containment of plant pathogens (also seeds and ...


5

This is a guess, but perhaps the result of an infection by a fungal plant pathogen related to Taphrina deformans. T deformans infects species of the genus Prunus (i.e. the genus of prunes and apricots), but it's best known for causing peach leaf curl in another Prunus species, peaches. For example, see this image of T. deformans infecting a leaf in ...


4

Endemic and chronic/acute are unrelated properties of a disease. Endemic is a description of the frequency of a disease in a population or in an area. Chronic/Acute is a description of the state or course of a disease in an individual. For example, influenza is endemic in North America: the frequency goes up and down, there's always a few people who have ...


3

Salmonella infect via the fecal-oral route. They have proteins on their surface that match our gut cell surfaces, allowing them to attach and invade the gut. Those cell markers aren't present when you are bitten. it's the same reason that plant virus dont make us sick. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593246 this is a bit heavy if you dont usually ...


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It's not entirely true. For example, a 2014 study demonstrates bed bugs can transmit Chagas disease. From Penn Medicine News: The bed bug may be just as dangerous as its sinister cousin, the triatomine, or “kissing” bug. A new study from Penn Medicine researchers in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics demonstrated that bed bugs, like ...


1

According to these sources ( A, B, C, D ), infective dose varies widely among the diseases which are caused by pathogens. It is reported that as few as 10 enterohemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli cells can cause an infection . For an infection to occur, the pathogen must overcome and pass the physical, physiological, immunological and environmental ...


1

A botanist at a local university says it is most definitely Crown Gall. He didn't provide any other information than that, so all I can do is quote Wikipedia: Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 ...


1

Vaccines containing these weakened or killed viruses or bacteria are introduced into your body, usually by injection. Your immune system reacts to the vaccine in a similar way that it would if it were being invaded by the pathogen — by making antibodies. The antibodies react to the vaccine (virus/bacteria) just as they would the live pathogen — like a ...


1

The actual mechanism through which alcohol increases blood pressure is poorly understood (1,2). However, there is a mountain of evidence that shows that there is a strong correlation between alcohol intake and hypertension (small, infrequent amounts may have positive effects whereas excessive consumption has very negative effects (3)). Back to the ...


1

You can have Salmonella without actually knowing it, the reason behind this is that there is a group of salmonellas known clinically as non-typhoid Salmonellas (this means they are still S: enteritidis, but different serovars other than the more popular S. typhi). These most of the time cause mild infections as noted by the World Health Organization non-...


1

I think you might be talking about Propagation of arterial thrombi. Propagation is the increasing size of a thrombus and it occurs towards the heart, this is because thrombi are formed differently in veins vs arteries. In veins they form through the accumulation of fibrin and red blood cells whilst in arteries they form through the clumping of platelets. ...


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There is not some simple dichotomy of "neurons shrink and other cells swell" in response to hypoxia/ischemia. Neuronal death can be necrotic or apoptotic or both, and at different stages different morphology is observed: generally swelling earlier, shrinkage later, though both are observed together early as well. Eosinophilia/"red neurons" tends to occur ...


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How does evolution eliminate problems that only cause diseases late in life? This is a fantastic question, which still is the subject of intense research. One possibility might be that we age because there is no or little evolutionary selection against diseases late in life (as old people are less likely to produce offspring). As for any active area of ...


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