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Both the AstraZeneca (AZ) and Janssen (J) vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 work by using what is known as a viral vector to generate an immune response. In both cases these vaccines use an Adenovirus as the vector (vector in this case means "carrier"). Adenoviruses are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses, most commonly known for being one of the ...


6

I think that you could argue that some prion diseases do form epidemics or outbreaks. In some cases it does appear that people have referred to BSE/vCJD as pandemics. There is even some journalism on the topic, and see also here. Infection by prion from the environment does occur at some rate, and it is true that it is these prions are the more transmissible....


5

This paper describes an allele-specific PCR protocol to detect CAG repeat expansion in MJD patients: Maciel P, Costa MDC, Ferro A, et al. Improvement in the Molecular Diagnosis of Machado-Joseph Disease. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(11):1821–1827.


2

In general, yes, administration of enzymes in some form or another can be used to treat a deficiency. A common example of this is the use of lactase to treat lactose intolerance. Since lactose intolerance results from the body not producing enough (or any) lactase, you can take oral lactase to alleviate the symptoms: Lactase products are tablets or drops ...


2

Flaviviruses are an important group of virus, including yellow fever, dengue, zika, west nile, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis. These viruses spread through the human population via arthropod vectors. The vectors have separate tubes for pulling blood in and injecting saliva; so in order to infect a vertebrate, the virus has to get from the ...


1

It is my understanding that toxoplasmosis can increase productivity and the brain's ability to understand things. It is when there is a toxo flare that behaviors can become irrational and angry. Knowing this can help as well as being in touch with when you are experiencing a flare. Knowing what range you have, if its active, and what supportives you will ...


1

Actually, neither A nor B in the example are a correct interpretation of a false positive rate, because there isn't enough information provided to determine a false positive rate. In the terminology of clinical diagnostic testing evaluation, testing outcomes can be classified into one of four fundamental categories: True positive, false positive, true ...


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