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Short answer This is a difficult question to answer. As far as I am aware, asphyxiation results in excitotoxicity, which causes unconsciousness, brain damage and eventually, death. Background Asphyxia is a condition of the body that occurs from severely inadequate oxygen supply, or because of excessive carbon dioxide in the body (First Aid and CPR courses)...


16

Necessary conditions In order for the process culminating in appendiceal rupture to begin, there must first be proximal obstruction of the lumen (the inside cavity of the appendix) that prevents normal communication with the bowel. Obstruction is most commonly caused by a fecalith, which results from accumulation and inspissation of fecal matter around ...


9

What is myopia? Myopia, a.k.a. near-sightedness, is a refractory error. Refraction is the process by which the optical system focuses images of objects on the retina, which are then transmitted to the visual cortex of the brain to be interpreted as vision. The major components of refraction are the cornea, lens, and axial eye length (distance from the ...


8

Ewing's sarcoma is a bone cancer. As such, it does not arise as a primary tumor in the heart. Ewing's sarcoma does metastasize. Like any metastatic cancer, it seeds along it's venous return to the heart, "taking root" in suitable tissue. Cardiac metastases of Ewing's sarcoma are exceedingly rare, with only a few reported cases. Since all blood returns to ...


7

There are different causes and mechanisms behind runny and stuffy nose. I cover them separately below. Runny nose My professor of pathoanatomy and pathophysiology says that the correct answer here is serous inflammation to the runny nose. Serous inflammation Marked exudation by relatively thin fluid Cold is caused by Acute respiratory viral infections ...


6

To answer your questions, one needs to address certain issues one at a time. Veins do have valves, but they function to hold blood from settling in the legs. When you flex muscles, the blood flows towards the heart. Valve failure occurs when people stand (especially if they stand relatively still) for long periods of time every day over many years, dilating ...


6

The answer lies in compensation. Take myocardial infarction, for starters. MI, if large enough, severely weakens the heart, and hence, at the same level of stimulation, it can no longer pump blood effectively, causing what is called Heart Failure (inability to pump enough blood). This causes an excess stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system (or more ...


6

From the perspective of sympathetic nervous system Exercise induced adaptations of heart A common phenomenon in endurance athletes is the athlete's heart /athletic heart syndrome Once athletes stop training, the heart returns to its normal size. You must understand why this type of adaptation is happening in them: Firstly the athletes train to produce ...


5

I was able to do some reading and research and I found some interesting information that was a). news to me. And b). the answer is yes... And no. A spasm can be the cause of a heart attack by causing the coronary artery to contract. When that artery contracts, it causes a dramatic decrease in blood flow to the heart. When the heart looses access to ...


5

The stuffiness is due to edema or swelling of the mucous membrane covering the nasal cavity. The swelling is caused by vasodialatation or dialatation of the capillaries and leaky vessels which accumulate fluid within the mucous membrane. The runny nose is mainly due to hyperactivity of the mucous cells of the lining which causes vastly more secretion than ...


5

The appendix doesn't burst by itself. It just lives there quietly, not causing problems. But if it gets infected, it gets full of bacteria, their waste (frequently toxic), and whatever liquids your body exuded into it to fight the infection. It is also connected to your digestive tract, which contains half-digested food. When the appendix swells due to ...


5

It is to do with the extend of the damage to the glomerulus. In nephrotic syndromes the glomerulus is damaged so that there is death of the podocytes. This happens to sufficiently high number of podocytes so that large proteins such as albumin and clotting factors can leak out causing large proteinuria. Damage to the basement membrane may also occur, such as ...


5

Vitamin C both enhances iron uptake, and affects iron metabolism: in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance nonheme iron absorption in the gut, ascorbate within mammalian systems can regulate cellular iron uptake and metabolism. Ascorbate modulates iron metabolism by stimulating ferritin synthesis, inhibiting lysosomal ferritin ...


5

The question has been explored in great depth in the cited paper. Have a look. Roddy E. Revisiting the pathogenesis of podagra: why does gout target the foot?. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2011 May 13;4(1):13. Summary: Nucleation factors: The site of Gout depends on where the Monosodium Urate (MSU) crystals are likely to form. This process of ...


5

The Gastroenterology paper you cite doesn't mention distended bellies at all. There is no dispute that fatty liver is a symptom of kwashiorkor. But the Wikipedia article makes it quite clear that the cause of the distended belly is edema. The extreme lack of protein causes an osmotic imbalance in the gastro-intestinal system causing swelling of the gut ...


4

Ischaemia is lack of sufficient perfusion to a tissue. Reduced perfusion could therefore mean decreased blood supply to organs and tissues and could also mean a complete cessation of blood flow to an area - therefore both can be correct as they are on a continuum. Infarction is tissue death due to hypoxia which can result from ischaemia that is not swiftly ...


4

Even though the fluid in pulmonary edema is a transudate, there is blood in it. This is substantiated by the fact that there are microhemorrhages in acute lung congestion and hemosiderin laden macrophages or 'heart failure cells' in long standing pulmonary congestion on histology. These signify that RBCs have escaped the vasculature to enter the tissue (and ...


4

According to this conference proceeding blood is very nearly newtonian at normal shear rates. More accurately blood is very thick and a shear-thinning fluid, but the shear-thinning effects don't scale with a power law like other non-Newtonian fluids. In terms of blood changing viscosities, I suspect that in living patients blood viscosity is quite ...


3

Yes, there have been a variety of studies that do association analysis of variants with bipolar disorder. Here is a recent one that validated 11-30 variants depending on how you count. However, in these kinds of analyses you should be somewhat cautious as the associations are extremely weak (as they generally are for complex traits in humans): Eight of the ...


3

Abdominal surgery results in a painful wound that affects the abdominal muscles, which are important for coughing. The Lungs and respiratory tracts constantly secrete mucus that flows upwards to the Trachea then down the Oesophagus. The trachea is lined with a moist mucous-membrane layer composed of cells containing small hairlike projections called Cilia. ...


3

Cough-variant asthma is a common cause for a non-productive dry cough. Asthma is not a single condition involving bronchospasm and with associated wheezing - there is a variant that is primarily or only coughing. There are different inciting factors that bring on symptoms cough-variant asthma. Most commonly they are exercise-induced, cold-induced, ...


3

The SA node is not necessary for contraction of the heart. The reason that this works is exactly what you mentioned: schematics. They are in sequence, but within that sequence, there are multiple autonomous signal generators in the heart, where spontaneous depolarization occurs to initiate contraction: the SA node, the AV node, and the purkinje fibers. ...


3

Abdominal distension is common in kwashiorkor, and many reasons have been proposed for it [1,2]: Dilated bowel loops (because of gas produced by bacterial overgrowth), An enlarged liver (because of steatosis, i.e. fat accumulation), Ascites, i.e. excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity (as part of the generalised oedema of kwashiorkor), and Weakness of the ...


2

A fully patent foramen ovale (pfo) is rare however a partial or small pfo is present in about 30% of the population. Now the manifestations you described are partially correct. A pfo causes a left to right shunt in the adult whilst a right to left shunt in the fetus. In the fetus this is normal. In the adult, it is left to right because the left atrium is ...


2

Pneumonia after abdominal surgery can develop due to: Decreased breathing movements when lying in the bed Anesthetics/sedation use that decrease the sensation of irritation in the lungs and hence coughing out mucus Pain preventing coughing Eventual mechanical ventilation, especially when the organism is not immune to hospital-acquired (nosocomial) ...


2

What you have asked for is a causal answer to correlated findings. There is no cause-effect evidence (at least from my searching) showing low cholesterol will indeed cause stroke. Associations like this are dangerous in the sense that we shouldn't think that one causes the other. But, we can speculate on how they are linked, which is always fun. I'll be ...


2

I have an answer, but it is not ideal because science's current understanding of the answer to your question is somewhat limited. The detrimental influence of physiological stress upon the heart is thought to occur because the physiological stress causes the cardiovascular system to prepare to meet anticipated energy needs by 1) increasing pulse and blood ...


1

The answer on the linked question is apt: transdermal administration of medications or other compounds include exclusively lipophylic compounds, i.e. uncharged 'fatty' materials, such as nicotine, opiate-bases and steroids. Minerals, like those found in clay, are highly hydrophylic and are therefore unlikely to be taken up by the skin. A search through a ...


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