56 votes

What is the benefit of fever during infections?

Fever is a trait observed in warm and cold-blooded vertebrates that has been conserved for hundreds of millions of years (Evans, 2015). Elevated body temperature stimulates the body's immune ...
user avatar
  • 51.1k
44 votes
Accepted

Are drugs made bitter artificially to prevent being mistaken for candy?

Short answer A bittering agent may be applied to therapeuticals to prevent pediatric poisonings, but many drugs inherently taste bitter by themselves. Background Bitter taste is thought to have ...
user avatar
  • 51.1k
35 votes
Accepted

Why do animal cells "mistake" rubidium ions for potassium ions?

There are multiple biological mechanisms that can be brought to bear for distinguishing between atoms. In addition to binding properties (e.g., ionic charge, electronegativity, bond strength), there ...
user avatar
  • 6,937
34 votes
Accepted

Why are vaccines for polio taken orally while vaccines for TB need to be injected?

There are different polio vaccines - one live (attenuated) vaccine which is given orally and one inactivated, which is injected. The main reason for using the live orally vaccine is that it provides ...
user avatar
  • 49.2k
25 votes
Accepted

Why are drug dosages so high in some mice studies?

Mice are simply different from humans; they have different metabolism, different lifespan, different body size. Generally, for a first order approximation, one might scale simply by body weight to ...
user avatar
  • 36.6k
21 votes
Accepted

Is cancer caused by vitamin B17 deficiency?

Short Answer: No. Background: First of all, there is no such thing as vitamin B17. The compound, amygdalin or laetrile, which is referred to by this term, is not a vitamin1. Amygdalin is indeed a ...
user avatar
16 votes
Accepted

How does methamphetamine (meth) damage neurons?

Nice question! I will directly begin with the process through which methamphetamine causes damage to neurons, putting in as much details as are known, and adding appropriate citations wherever ...
user avatar
15 votes
Accepted

How does aspirin "thin" blood?

Aspirine irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase. This enzyme facilitates the reaction from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2/H2. The further reaction leads to the generation of Thromboxane ...
user avatar
  • 49.2k
14 votes
Accepted

Does homeopathic or herbal treatment of cancer have any scientific recognition?

The methodology behind homeopathy is scientific nonsense. If you dilute anything a billion times, it will have no chemical effect, not even if you shake it all the while. So no, homeopathy does ...
user avatar
  • 4,700
14 votes

Is cancer caused by vitamin B17 deficiency?

Short version: This is nonsense, cancer does not arise from nutritional deficiencies. Long version: The substance is called Amygdalin, a poisonous cyanogenic glycoside. It can be found in higher ...
user avatar
  • 49.2k
14 votes
Accepted

Meaning of "acute LSD"

In the abstract they refer to "acute LSD administration" (emphasis mine), and in the next section of the results after the one you mention in your question, they clarify it as "Acute ...
user avatar
  • 14.8k
13 votes
Accepted

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

Isn't it illogical to give more of insulin for a deficit amount of receptors? Seems like there is some confusion in the definition of type-2 DM itself. According ...
user avatar
12 votes
Accepted

What is "irrational" drug/molecule design?

"Irrational" design in these papers refers to combinatorial mutagenesis, which is put forward as the alternative to "rational" protein design. Rational design involves using existing information ...
user avatar
  • 7,729
10 votes

Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Short answer The mechanism of action of serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, a commonly-prescribed class of antidepressants, is a downregulation of 5HT1A receptors through negative feedback. This ...
user avatar
  • 51.1k
10 votes
Accepted

Why does caffeine give you so much energy, while being so low on calories?

I agree with @inf3rno: caffeine is a stimulant that acts on the brain and various other parts of the body (Snyder et al., 1981) and I wish to elaborate on its psychopharmacology. Caffeine's effects in ...
user avatar
  • 51.1k
10 votes

Does one wing of fly contain harmful microbes and the other contain only antibodies?

Does one wing of fly contain harmful microbes and the other contain only antibodies? False. A healthy microdose of skepticism is all you would ever need here. It's just a silly attempt to prove a ...
user avatar
  • 5,690
9 votes
Accepted

By what mechanism does Risperidone swell breast tissue?

Risperidone prevents dopamine from acting on the pituitary gland by blocking dopamine type 2 receptors. One of dopamine's effects on the pituitary is to suppress prolactin production. In patients ...
user avatar
  • 1,771
9 votes
Accepted

Does inhaling glue (glue sniffing) reduce appetite?

Short answer Various inhalants, most notably organic solvents including those used in paint and glue suppress appetite. Background From the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse I learned the following: ...
user avatar
  • 51.1k
9 votes

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

This is true for the beginning of the disease. As a reaction to the reduced sensitivity of the cells in the body to insulin (and thus less uptake of glucose from the blood and a resulting ...
user avatar
  • 49.2k
8 votes
Accepted

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Short answer The causes of death after heroin, cocain or cannabis overdose are mainly due to cardiac and respiratory arrest, and not to neurotoxic effects. Background The cause of death after a ...
user avatar
  • 51.1k
8 votes
Accepted

Do spinal cord reflexes (such as the knee-jerk reflex) continue to function under general anaesthesia?

The issue is complicated. In general it depends on the specific spinal reflex and on the specific anaesthetic. But it seems that the modern general anaesthetics usually do NOT block monosynaptic ...
user avatar
  • 301
8 votes
Accepted

How does Tylenol relieve pain without making me drowsy?

Opiate pain killers or pain killers that act on opioid receptors have a different mechanism of action than NSAIDs. They tend to act as receptor agonists which exert their effect on the CNS (oxycodone ...
user avatar
  • 8,041
8 votes
Accepted

Does LSD "stay" in your fat storage and then "returns" back?

I've heard this rumor for years, both from pro- and anti-drug people, and it is not true. According to this review of LSD's pharmacology, its half-life in the body is about 5 hours, with it being ...
user avatar
  • 14.8k
7 votes
Accepted

Is there any completely Computation Drug ever launched in market?

Yes, there are a few. Mostly they are designed in combination with X-ray crystallography of the target which should be inhibited. Then molecules are designed which fit specifically into these targets. ...
user avatar
  • 49.2k
7 votes

What is the benefit of fever during infections?

Fever normally under hypothalamic heat center's control which stays at limbic system of brain . Hypothalamus sets its own set point 36.4-37.2 in healthy peoples by some molecules named exogenous and ...
user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

Can controlled dose of Codeine improve brain's functionality?

the first time you take them you will feel better, think sharper, and act better You are probably thinking of amphetamines, not opiates. Militaries have used amphetamines for just that purpose for ...
user avatar
  • 36.6k
7 votes
Accepted

What is the motivation behind fluorinated pharmaceuticals?

Fluorine has a combination of unique chemical properties, which makes it very useful in drug design : It is small, such that replacing a C-H with a C-F is often possible, from a sterical point of ...
user avatar
  • 1,135
7 votes
Accepted

Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

Receptors Any drug or compound with specific effects has a receptor. You can read about this general concept in Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Chapter 1 introduces ...
user avatar
  • 8,691
7 votes
Accepted

Why don't anti-viral drugs like "Acyclovir" work against coronaviruses?

Aciclovir specifically targets HSV-family viruses. It is metabolized by a viral-specific enzyme into an inhibitor of the specific DNA polymerase expressed by the virus: in infected cells, HSV or ...
user avatar
  • 36.6k
6 votes

Pharmacology Half Life Calculation

You have done the calculation correctly it is just the answer you have is in hours, try dividing by 24. A good method of checking answers is to use a trick which is horribly called "Dimensional ...
user avatar

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible