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Stress response has 2 main components: Quick response, within minutes, is by the Sympathomedullary Pathway (SAM): hypothalamus > sympathetic nervous system > release of adrenaline and noradrenaline from the adrenal medulla > stimulation of the heart, dilation of the muscle arteries, constriction of the gut and skin arteries, glcogenolysis (the breakdown of ...


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Essentially, evapotranspiration is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere. Here are some links to articles about transpiration: https://biolympiads.com/plant-anatomy-and-physiology/


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One of the physical limits to biological flight is muscle physiology. Muscle force output is proportional to muscle physiological cross sectional area multiplied by its specific tension (Gans, 1982): $$F = PCSA * Specific~Tension$$ PCSA is basically just the cross-sectional area of a muscle adjusted for its architecture. Pennate muscles have higher PCSA ...


1

While cataracts is a possible explanation, the much more likely explanation is this answer about light adaptation. There's a significant amount of literature about perceptional hue shifts with varying adaptation to brightness. While these experiments were not done with monocular variants, it's reasonable to believe that the effects measured can affect eyes ...


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