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Not all microorganisms are pathogens Firstly, not all microorganisms are pathogens - some can be harmless and some can be even essential for the host organism functioning (e.g., many microorganisms that are a part of our microbiote). Many pathogens are not microorganisms Here one have to mention viruses and subviral entities (prions, viroids) which are not ...


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Terminology in biology often gets a little fuzzy around the edges, sometimes as a result of overlapping definitions, or the desire to avoid overlap. For whatever reason, many eukaryotic pathogens are more commonly referred to as parasites. This seems to be more common with (though not exclusive to) multicellular parasites, like tapeworms, possibly leading to ...


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Tl;DR: Urea is a metabolic waste excreted from human body. As such it does not have any function in human body. It is a major product in the waste excreted from kidneys although trace amounts can be found in sweat. The concentration of urea increases when kidneys fails to function normally. Hence, they are excreted through sweat glands, observed as "...


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Here is how I think of the issue. First, keep in mind over the course of the action potential, ion concentrations on both the outside and inside of the neuron remain relatively unchanged. You can think of the Nernst potential as a charged battery, and they keep their concentrations relatively constant. Currents will flow, and the voltage will change, but ...


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