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Short answer About 0.79% of the light gets through on average, but there is variability across wavelengths and individuals. (variability between individuals seems to be correlated with density of macromolecules in the eyelid). Long answer: This is called "eyelid spectral transmittance". Lucky for you, Bierman et al (2011) sought to determine the ...


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Synaptic vesicles are on the order of tens of nanometers (for example Zhang et al give a mean diameter around 40 nm). Gap junctions are much smaller, on the order of 1-2 nm. Maeda et al measure one at 1.4 nm. Peptides the size of oxytocin present in the cytosol could theoretically travel through gap junctions. Vesicle-packaged peptides or molecules of any ...


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The GHK voltage equation also known as just "Goldman equation" is always valid for determining the voltage at which the net current is zero, given internal/external ion concentrations and their permeabilities. This includes times during the action potential, though the result you get from GHK will be changing faster than the actual membrane ...


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