38 votes

Why do wasps have "wasp waists"? What's been optimized?

Why do humans have such a flexible shoulder? Our ancestors relied on throwing things so the ones who could throw things better did better. What is the wasp's equivalent weapon? The stinger. Wasps ...
Jeremiah's user avatar
  • 831
7 votes

What are the three dots (eyes?) on the top of this wasp's head? What species might it be?

I don't know what species this is but a lot of bees and wasps have those three dots on their head. They are sort of eyes, but they can't actually make out images. They basically just detect light ...
Jeremiah's user avatar
  • 831
4 votes
Accepted

Does decompression sickness (the bends) ultimately come from the change in pressure in the lungs, or the actual total ambient pressure over the body?

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the surface of the liquid Henry’s Law (On the ground at sea level air pressure is about 15psi, nitrogen is ...
Rich's user avatar
  • 326
4 votes

Is it possible to live without iodine? (sea plants, seaweed or fish?)

Iodine is a component of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, so it is indeed a human nutritional requirement. According to this Harvard University webpage, milk (especially), eggs ...
David's user avatar
  • 25.7k
4 votes
Accepted

What is total body water and why is it inversely proportional to fat content of body?

Total body water is the total amount or percent of one's body that is comprised of water. It isn't the same as total body fluids, but on careful examination, it's close. For example, the average adult ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Why does hyperventilation make you feel like you need to breathe more?

Hyperventilation alone does not cause you to feel that you're not getting enough oxygen. Rather, it's what causes hyperventilation that does that (thus resulting in hyperventilation.) The Calm Clinic ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
3 votes

Why is iron transported across membranes in the ferrous form?

This is not my subject, but from scanning the introductions to a couple of reviews on the general topic of iron metabolism, the following factors seem to be important: Ferric iron is less soluble ...
David's user avatar
  • 25.7k
3 votes
Accepted

How to calculate the osmolality of Hepes solution?

I assume this is a measured osmolality rather than a calculated one. It's challenging to calculate actual osmolality because of incomplete dissociation of the solutes, see for example https://en....
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.7k
3 votes

Membrane Potential Question

Usually we use the Goldman Equation when calculating membrane potential with multiple ions and the Nernst equation for calculating reversal potentials for individual ions. Try out the Goldman Equation ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.7k
2 votes
Accepted

How is it known that there are only three macronutrients: proteins carbohydrates and lipids?

Summary The question is based on the misconception that the term “macronutrient” originated as a scientific definition, to which entities satisfying this definition were assigned. In fact it was a ...
David's user avatar
  • 25.7k
1 vote

Water-soluble vitamins involved in amino acid metabolism in the citric acid cycle

FYI: I could not find any articles written in English that was compact enough for my purposes. Therefore, I would like to share the content of a Japanese university's website with minimal annotations;...
Blue Various's user avatar
1 vote

What is the evidence that women experience a larger cortisol spike than men, when they see domestic clutter?

I linked to the paper above in a comment. I'm not a behavioral scientist. So interpret with a grain of salt. The study analyzes language used after tours of homes, to evaluate how stressful the homes ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
1 vote

Does this explanation hold good even in case of Mitotracker red?

No, the Mitotracker probes accumulate in active mitochondria, not in ones that are dysfunctional, as mentioned in the product page from Cell Signalling Technologies (emphasis mine): ...with ...
bob1's user avatar
  • 12.1k
1 vote

What are the units of Q10 (temperature sensitivity)?

This is a nice example of mathematical sloppiness which is more often present in textbooks on biology than on chemistry or physics where perople are more careful about dimensional analysis*. The ...
Domen's user avatar
  • 1,932

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