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In principle, any biological product should be able to be developed through microbial synthesis, with the appropriate choice of chassis. Indeed, this was the goal of the DARPA "1000 Molecules" program, which did indeed demonstrate it was possible to rapidly engineer new pathways for production of new biomolecules. In practice, however, some ...


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I don't think it's a terribly rigorous statistical argument, so much as a toy model arguing that there can be a reproductive advantage to selfing in an outcrossing population. Here is the logic as I see it: Ovule and pollen represent the female and the male reproductive gametes in a monoecious plant (monoecious means that it has both male and female ...


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Yes plants can absorb organic compounds..For example plants can absorb citric acid Due to citric acid’s ability to chelate metals and be absorbed by plants, it is hypothe-sized that exposure to it will increase the ability of wheat-grass to absorb macro- and micro-nutrients, as well as heavy metals, from soil. Citric acid chelates absorption Also ...


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There are whole groups of plants that don't photosynthesize, but which derive their nutrients from other plants in various ways. For instance, the common (hereabouts) Snow Plant https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the-week/sarcodes_sanguinea.shtml gets nutrition from soil fungi (mycorhizzae) which in turn get it from conifers. There are a great many ...


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General Considerations The question asks specifically why certain plant products are not produced commercially in genetically modified micro-organisms. There are some general reasons, illustrated in some of the examples mentioned: The product is actually a complex mixture, rather than a single compound. This is the case for saffron, preparations of which ...


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The plant uses light to produce energy but also as a signal of how and when to grow (phototropism, photoperiodism). In the context of your question I'll first cover light-harvesting in photosynthesis and then phototropism. Tl;DR Blue and red light are important for plant growth. Red light is the main one in photosynthesis and if a plant is exposed to another ...


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Seeds are made from cells in an amorphous metastable superviscous state because the cell's cytoplasm becomes a solid matrix of hydrogenated oil and sugar. The fats also contain a lot of anti-oxidants, so that ambient oxygen that can affect the dormant cells is absorbed by buffer chemicals. The sugars and oils in the cell cytoplasm (the inside of the cell) ...


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Plants do not break down cellulose for energy, although it does store energy. Plants store their energy in the form of starch, which is broken down into glucose for the plant to use for energy. Most plants do not survive once the starch is utilized (but they do not breakdown cellulose). Because cellulose molecules bond strongly to each other, breakdown of ...


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The answer depends to some degree on what you mean by "some process of vernalization". As far as I know, the difference between winter and spring varieties is a matter mostly of how strong the response is, not whether the response exists. One paper writes in the abstract: Wheat cultivars are classified as two general types: winter wheat with ...


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maybe this company https://www.industrial-needs.com/scales-and-balances/recording-scales.htm Our scale software allows a real-time measurement on a computer and depending on the weighing data, they can also be saved with a date stamp as a TXT file on the computer


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Ideal conditions for photosynthesis You mention ideal conditions to carry out photosynthesis, I would just like to point out that this includes carbondioxide levels, temperature, and nutrients as well as light. Flowering As anongoodnurse mentions performance might be measured by blooming which, in most flowering plants, has a day-light related component. ...


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There are a variety of methods for visualizing elements in plants. Here is a review discussing various such methods. As suggested by other answers, radioisotopes are one such means (works in vivo?). One may also use X-ray spectroscopy: "With x-ray fluorescence-based approaches, elements are detected based upon their characteristic fluorescent x-rays. ...


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It is not an acronym; it is an abbreviation of pinnulate (or pinnulated), which means having the pinnulae of a pinnate leaf properly developed. Gene symbols written in all caps indicate the wild-type condition of the organism: If a gene is referred to as PIN1, it means its product (an auxin transporter) permits normal branching (or at lest does not ...


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At least some plants have cellulases which can be used to cleave primers from mature cellulose chains. Cellulose synthesis requires chain initiation and elongation (the two processes are separate). CesA glucosyltransferase initiates cellulose polymerization using a steroid primer and UDP-glucose. Cellulose synthase utilizes UDP-D-glucose precursors to ...


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Absolutely, this is actually looking more as an engineering problem rather than a biology one. In any case, I think I have found a satisfactory answer on a paper from the 1997 Proceedings of the Sixth European Symposium on Space Environmental Control Systems. The article is called: Oxygen Scrubbing and Sensing in Plant Growth Chambers using Solid Oxide ...


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The rationale behind CAM photosynthesis, as opposed to C3 photosynthesis, is to partition the "light" and "dark" reactions temporally to avoid production of phosphoglycolate by RuBisCO in the presence of oxygen. During photosynthesis, molecular oxygen is produced in the photosynthetic electron transport chain, or the "light" ...


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In the process of photosynthesis light is used as as a source of energy to generate sugar from carbon and water. A by-product is oxygen. This process can be broken into two cycles: light reaction and Calvin cycle. In the light reaction energy from photons is transformed into usable energy and reducing agents (ATP, NADPH) and water is used as a source of ...


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I might have found a solution! Kuijken et al. (2015) first germinate seeds in a sterile eppendorf filled with agar and nutrients. They then cut off the bottom of the eppendorf and stick it through the lid of a sterile plastic jar and pad it with sterile cotton. So I guess they are using the agar as a material that is permeable to the roots and "...


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male-sterility is not required for breeding. Male-sterility means that the female acting plant (the plant that will bear the fruit) has sterile male organs (either dysfunctional anthers or sterile pollen). and won't self pollinate. The male-acting plant is fertile. In monoecious plants this is helpful for breeding because we can't easily provide a controlled ...


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To get a hybrid you need pollen from a different plant. Corn is likely to self-pollinate if some action is not taken to prevent it. I don't know of sterile males plants - in the US corn belt the self-pollination is prevented by detasseling. Many young people get summer jobs detasseling (cutting off the tassels) for seed corn.


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The number of stomata on the leaf is the limiting factor. Light causes the stomata to open, more so with increasing light intensity. Once all the stomata are fully open, the transpiration rate rate cannot increase any further (for a given set of temperature and relative humidity conditions).


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