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This is a great question. Without going into too much detail, there is a series of studies done in northeastern US temperate forests (specifically at Great Mountain Forest in Connecticut, USA) on the growth, survival, and dispersal of canopy trees. In this particular community, light appears to be the primary limiting factor. Seedlings and saplings in low-...


7

Only a small fraction of plant carbon is soil-derived: e.g. from Majlesi et al 2019: although the majority of plant C was obtained from atmosphere by photosynthesis, a significant portion (up to 3–5%) of C in plant roots was derived from old soil" (in an experiment with Scots pine and reed canary grass). As laid out by this review of C4 photosynthesis,...


5

In principle, any biological product should be able to be developed through microbial synthesis, with the appropriate choice of chassis. Indeed, this was the goal of the DARPA "1000 Molecules" program, which did indeed demonstrate it was possible to rapidly engineer new pathways for production of new biomolecules. In practice, however, some ...


4

The optimum cytoplasmic pH for performing physiological activities in plant cells is a neutral pH of around 7.2 to 7.4. The pH of apoplastic space outside plasma membrane and vacuolar pH is acidic ranging between 5 to 7. The thylakoid lumen is more fluctuating which varies during light / dark cycles and is highly acidic. The mitochondrial compartment and ...


4

According to Evaluation of the Effect of Density on Potato Yield and Tuber Size Distribution potato tuber size was estimated using a normal distribution but they are not normally distributed They found that a Weibull distribution with specific parameters estimated better than a normal distribution. In fact you should not expect a normal distribution because ...


4

Yes plants can absorb organic compounds..For example plants can absorb citric acid Due to citric acid’s ability to chelate metals and be absorbed by plants, it is hypothe-sized that exposure to it will increase the ability of wheat-grass to absorb macro- and micro-nutrients, as well as heavy metals, from soil. Citric acid chelates absorption Also ...


4

I don't think it's a terribly rigorous statistical argument, so much as a toy model arguing that there can be a reproductive advantage to selfing in an outcrossing population. Here is the logic as I see it: Ovule and pollen represent the female and the male reproductive gametes in a monoecious plant (monoecious means that it has both male and female ...


3

There are whole groups of plants that don't photosynthesize, but which derive their nutrients from other plants in various ways. For instance, the common (hereabouts) Snow Plant https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the-week/sarcodes_sanguinea.shtml gets nutrition from soil fungi (mycorhizzae) which in turn get it from conifers. There are a great many ...


3

General Considerations The question asks specifically why certain plant products are not produced commercially in genetically modified micro-organisms. There are some general reasons, illustrated in some of the examples mentioned: The product is actually a complex mixture, rather than a single compound. This is the case for saffron, preparations of which ...


3

The delay for UVR8 photoactivation seems to be in the range of picoseconds depending on the wavelength: Global analysis in terms of a model of parallel decaying components indicated four lifetimes of 14.7 ps, 370 ps, 1.9 ns, and 5.9 ns. The photodynamics of the Trp ensemble in UVR8 can be summarized as illustrated in Figure 5B. We observe excited state ...


3

The benefit is not in taking up more water but in transporting the things that water contains. Plants rely on bulk transport in water flowing though specialized tissue (xylem), somewhat analogous to blood flow in an animal. Water flows through the xylem using capillary action; when water is lost at the top, capillary action pulls water into the vacated space ...


3

The plant uses light to produce energy but also as a signal of how and when to grow (phototropism, photoperiodism). In the context of your question I'll first cover light-harvesting in photosynthesis and then phototropism. Tl;DR Blue and red light are important for plant growth. Red light is the main one in photosynthesis and if a plant is exposed to another ...


3

Not all plant cells perform a function when they die. But a lot do. Sclerenchyma is refereed to as: Sclerenchyma is the tissue which makes the plant hard and stiff... Mature sclerenchyma is composed of dead cells with extremely thick cell walls (secondary walls). Plant cell death includes necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy and studying how and why they ...


2

Plants do not break down cellulose for energy, although it does store energy. Plants store their energy in the form of starch, which is broken down into glucose for the plant to use for energy. Most plants do not survive once the starch is utilized (but they do not breakdown cellulose). Because cellulose molecules bond strongly to each other, breakdown of ...


2

bougainvillea is a qualitative short day plant meaning that it needs long, uninterrupted nights to flower. Most flowring accours when it gets 8hrs of light (=16 hrs of night). India is a huge country so you need to be more specific or tell us how many hours of light the plant gets. Note that if it's exposed to light from the house/street it may not flower as ...


2

The heat the plant produces ultimately comes from the light it uses. Unless the plant produces heat just in the wanted time (winter?) from light absorbed another time; then you would be just as warm by letting the light directly warm your environment regardless of plants.


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The mechanism of photosynthesis proceeds via light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions within the chloroplasts (organelles in cells which house the photosynthetic machinery, and indeed chlorophyll itself). To produce glucose via photosynthesis, you certainly need the pigment chlorophyll - it is necessary but not sufficient by itself. For that,...


2

I think you already know the sign convention in calculating the water potential: the addition of solutes lowers the potential (negative vector), while an increase in pressure increases the potential (positive vector).(Another way of saying the same would be more solute = more negative.) {1} This is the same everywhere. Pressure potential: The pressure ...


2

Seeds are made from cells in an amorphous metastable superviscous state because the cell's cytoplasm becomes a solid matrix of hydrogenated oil and sugar. The fats also contain a lot of anti-oxidants, so that ambient oxygen that can affect the dormant cells is absorbed by buffer chemicals. The sugars and oils in the cell cytoplasm (the inside of the cell) ...


2

The answer depends to some degree on what you mean by "some process of vernalization". As far as I know, the difference between winter and spring varieties is a matter mostly of how strong the response is, not whether the response exists. One paper writes in the abstract: Wheat cultivars are classified as two general types: winter wheat with ...


1

Ideal conditions for photosynthesis You mention ideal conditions to carry out photosynthesis, I would just like to point out that this includes carbondioxide levels, temperature, and nutrients as well as light. Flowering As anongoodnurse mentions performance might be measured by blooming which, in most flowering plants, has a day-light related component. ...


1

Absolutely, this is actually looking more as an engineering problem rather than a biology one. In any case, I think I have found a satisfactory answer on a paper from the 1997 Proceedings of the Sixth European Symposium on Space Environmental Control Systems. The article is called: Oxygen Scrubbing and Sensing in Plant Growth Chambers using Solid Oxide ...


1

male-sterility is not required for breeding. Male-sterility means that the female acting plant (the plant that will bear the fruit) has sterile male organs (either dysfunctional anthers or sterile pollen). and won't self pollinate. The male-acting plant is fertile. In monoecious plants this is helpful for breeding because we can't easily provide a controlled ...


1

To get a hybrid you need pollen from a different plant. Corn is likely to self-pollinate if some action is not taken to prevent it. I don't know of sterile males plants - in the US corn belt the self-pollination is prevented by detasseling. Many young people get summer jobs detasseling (cutting off the tassels) for seed corn.


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The number of stomata on the leaf is the limiting factor. Light causes the stomata to open, more so with increasing light intensity. Once all the stomata are fully open, the transpiration rate rate cannot increase any further (for a given set of temperature and relative humidity conditions).


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This ref. says that the plastids and mitochondria are still intact. Found by searching for "sieve cell development" Neuberger, D.S., Evert, R.F. Structure and development of sieve cells in the primary phloem ofPinus resinosa . Protoplasma 87, 27–37 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01623956 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01623956


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One of the properties of "storoge" is that in can be filled or empied when needed. Contents of cytoplasm and all organelles are aqueous solutions so all of them contain quite some water. However, thease solutions need to maintain precise concentration of many solutes in order to facilitate proper enviroment for various biological processes. ...


1

At least some plants have cellulases which can be used to cleave primers from mature cellulose chains. Cellulose synthesis requires chain initiation and elongation (the two processes are separate). CesA glucosyltransferase initiates cellulose polymerization using a steroid primer and UDP-glucose. Cellulose synthase utilizes UDP-D-glucose precursors to ...


1

Meristem size is a very controled, highly genetic feature. It doesn't change between big or small branch/root (The SAM and RAM are obviously different). There are very levels of potency in the meristematic tissue, so you should explain more which section of the meristem is of interest. SAM (shoot apical meristem) In *Arabidopsis thaliana* there are 9 long-...


1

Since you asked for the science I'll try to give a scientific but simple explanation. Trees (and plants) become wider and taller over time. This growth is due to cell division and cell elongation from meristematic cells (analog to stem cells in animals). The stem (upper part of a plant) becomes wider because is it constantly creating new vascular tissue from ...


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