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The cost would increase; either because pollination services are not provided and the supply is decreased; or because the cost to producers goes up as they must pay for artificial pollination. See the extremely detailed analysis in Winfree et al. edit I imagine what you're actually asking for is a $ figure "per apple". This depends on the location, crop, ...


2

Herrera, Sara et al. 2018 suggest that there are at least 33 S-alleles in apricot. I believe some species of Brassica have at least 60 S-alleles identified. However, there are dominance relationships among these alleles, so I don't think you can directly extrapolate from the number alleles to to the rate at which non-self pollen will be excluded. The ...


1

Yes, it does. In Meiosis there is genetic recombination (by recombinase) in the Meiosis-1. So even though it is self pollination, there is significant genetic variation. Still for higher degree of variation cross pollination is exhibited. It should be noted that cross pollination has greater evolutionary significance. Few plants exhibit self-incompatibility ...


1

It's the Monarch caterpillars that only feed on milkweed. Adult Monarchs, like many butterflies, feed on the nectar from flowers. https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/Monarch_Butterfly/habitat/index.shtml


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Dandelions are sporothytes. In Wikipedia you can read (Alternation of generations): "In the spermatophytes, the seed plants, the sporophyte is the dominant multicellular phase; the gametophytes are strongly reduced in size and very different in morphology. The entire gametophyte generation, with the sole exception of pollen grains (...


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