As far as I am aware, there is no known requirement for Cd in mammalian systems, but it is extremely toxic (Waalkes & Goering).
It would seem that cadmium is required to get crystals of RBP, and its presence is an artifact of the crystallization process (ref):
Pig holoRBP crystals were obtained at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapor- diffusion method, ...
The energy released by ATP hydrolysis must be coupled, by enzymes, to some other reaction or process in order to be useful. It isn’t magic. There are ATP-dependent chaperones that assist in protein folding.
Mutation in DNA can be beneficial, harmful, or may have no effect. This is dependent on the gene location where this mutation has occurred.
Various genes linked to cancer are:
Tumor suppressor genes: These genes regulate cell growth by keeping check on cell division, repairing mismatched DNA and regulating cell death. Mutation in this type of gene leads ...