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As far as I am aware, there is no known requirement for Cd in mammalian systems, but it is extremely toxic (Waalkes & Goering). It would seem that cadmium is required to get crystals of RBP, and its presence is an artifact of the crystallization process (ref): Pig holoRBP crystals were obtained at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapor- diffusion method, ...


3

Yes The energy released by ATP hydrolysis must be coupled, by enzymes, to some other reaction or process in order to be useful. It isn’t magic. There are ATP-dependent chaperones that assist in protein folding.


1

Mutation in DNA can be beneficial, harmful, or may have no effect. This is dependent on the gene location where this mutation has occurred. Various genes linked to cancer are: Tumor suppressor genes: These genes regulate cell growth by keeping check on cell division, repairing mismatched DNA and regulating cell death. Mutation in this type of gene leads ...


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