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There are, of course, many different deoxyribonucleases (DNase), but the question has other implicit problems. It assumes that there was a single event that resulted in the realization of the existence of a new enzymatic activity. As the Introduction to this paper by M. McCarty on the purification of one such enzyme in the Journal of General Physiology in ...


3

The Stem Cell Reports paper linked in the question is open-access, so anyone can download it freely. Unfortunately the Nature paper is not. There are two different abbreviation conventions being used in the open paper – MyoD+/MyoD- and MyoD+/MyoD-. The italicized version indicates the genotype of the cell, tissue, or individual being referenced, so for ...


3

To answer why sequences are known before structures, it is worth highlighting the typical ‘workflow’ for a biochemical researcher. Briefly, sequence is always before structure because you need the sequence to determine the structure. As with everything else one would like to investigate, you have to start with the information that you already have. In modern ...


2

Generally, sorbitol is one of those 'old tricks' in the book which is thrown into cultures or buffers for several reasons. Here are a few that I have heard of: Bacterial cultures (e.g. E.coli BL21) that are optimised to express (produce) protein, because sorbitol is thought to increase the expression of soluble protein. In buffers intended for proteins, as ...


1

No, they change conformation in response to voltage. Wikipedia has some general discussion of the gating process, as would any basic neuroscience textbook. The primary energy (ATP) cost of neurotransmission is in establishing ion concentration gradients, via the sodium/potassium ATPase. You can think of this as a special case of secondary active transport, ...


1

There are research groups working on this exact question; understanding cold adaptation in enzymes. You can read about this in several articles such as 'Computation of enzyme cold adaptation', or 'Molecular Structural Basis for the Cold Adaptedness of the Psychrophilic β-Glucosidase BglU in Micrococcus antarcticus', or 'Specific amino acids responsible for ...


1

Enzymes are catalysts that lower a reactions activation energy (Ea), and thus increases the rate of the reaction. The diagram above is a Gibbs-Free energy landscape/pathway, where the top of the diagram is the transition state between the substrate and the product. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by stabilising the transition state, and in effect, lowers ...


1

96-well plates made from polystyrene are routinely used to immobilize antibodies with excellent results. The immobilized antibodies are then used for binding to antigens e.g. ELISA. The antibody should be free of other proteins for best results as these will compete for binding (many are supplied with carrier proteins such as BSA that will compete). A ...


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