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Mutation in DNA can be beneficial, harmful, or may have no effect. This is dependent on the gene location where this mutation has occurred. Various genes linked to cancer are: Tumor suppressor genes: These genes regulate cell growth by keeping check on cell division, repairing mismatched DNA and regulating cell death. Mutation in this type of gene leads ...


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"The sickle cell trait" affects people who are homozygous for the HbS allele. These individuals only have hemoglobin S (after all fetal and embryonic hemoglobin genes are switched off). Hemoglobin S forms large crystal aggregates under conditions of low oxygen tension, and cause red cells to sickling and then to lyse. Anemia is most often severe and lethal. ...


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Prion disease is caused when cellular prion protein (PrPc) is misfolded to form abnormal prion protein called scrapie prion protein (PrPSc). These newly formed abnormal prions can't be degraded by enzymes so they keep on accumulating and are responsible for stimulating other normal proteins to fold improperly and form protein aggregates. Accumulation of ...


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Yes, malformed prion proteins can affect tissues outside of the brain. Via: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/prion-diseases/overview-of-prion-diseases Another familial prion disease has been recently discovered. It differs from other prion diseases because it causes diarrhea and affects nerves throughout the body ...


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