40

The phrase "Breast is best" is a hotly debated one (source: The Guardian and personal communications with many folks). The reason why we don't want to feed infants cow's milk is, however, anything but debated, because Cow's milk does not provide enough: Vitamin E Iron Essential fatty acids And because it contains too much: Protein Sodium Potassium (...


24

Humans are believed to be mostly serial monogamists with a noticeable components of secret cheating. Serial monogamy means most will have a single partner at a time but will likely have several partners throughout their life, there is however an under current (~15%) of hidden cheating in most studied populations. Also I say mostly becasue human behavior is ...


20

Trypophobia is not a recognised specific anxiety disorder (Washington Post). It is worth mentioning that anyone can have a phobia to anything, this is merely a question of whether many people associate these spatial patterns with anxiety. Nevertheless, the response of individuals to these images can be quantified (Le et al., 2015). Ultimately the findings ...


19

First of all, great question! What you describe here is known as aposematism. Aposematism is the adapation of warning signals against the predator. This word is used for any sound, coloring, and odor used as a warning signal. Of course, for this question the focus is color. Honest indications Animal coloration is usually an honest indication of their ...


17

This phenomenon has been demonstrated in studies [1][2] which show a significant increase in urine output in the cold. The latter study shows the biggest increase is when a person is initially exposed to the cold rather than when they continue to be exposed or rewarmed up. In the study, the average urine out was 157 mL/hour when a person was initially ...


12

As someone who is very disgusted by this kind of image, I think it is a caused by an association with maladies like burns, infections, and especially parasites. It is difficult for me to even describe this without feeling a bit nauseated, but it is hard for me to see things like that without picturing it being my, or someone else's, skin. Or that it is ...


12

The easy answer is simply, no. The longer answer is that it depends on whatever cultural norms that are practiced in a given area at a certain time. Often powerful men in history had multiple lovers, but had arranged marriages. Like wise open relationships were very normal in the 60's and 70's of the 20th century. Also polygamous relationships are ...


9

Yes, there is a biological basis. Your examples seem a little social/cultural to me, though. In any case, here are some examples I came across. One study that showed that women's hormones rose in response to smelling male sweat. There's also a large psychological component that, for example, shows people find symmetry important in beauty. A review ...


8

The contents of milk differ between species. For your example, cow's milk: Infants fed WCM [Whole Cow's Milk] have low intakes of iron, linoleic acid, and vitamin E, and excessive intakes of sodium, potassium, and protein Calves have different nutrition needs from human babies. Infants who receive cow's milk instead of breastmilk often suffer from iron ...


7

You will be hard-pressed to find any scientific data on this question. Psychology in humans is already a difficult study, at times failing to demonstrate results with real scientific rigor. When studying animal psychology, you face another substantial barrier - language. Although some primates have been taught to communicate with sign language, the best of ...


7

Your "grieving bird" is a video of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and its (nearly?) dead chick on a hot summer day in Phoenix, Arizona (USA) in 2016. Photo credit: Arizona Game And Fish Department The video is from a nest camera webcam set up in the Maricopa County building in Phoenix, Arizona by the Arizona Game and Fish Department.(See this ...


6

It's all about chemical reactions in your body triggered by your brain. Lot's of researches and documents confirmed this is what happens when you face a stressful situation. Stress -> hypothalamus -> sympathetic nerves -> Epinephrine (Adrenaline) -> more urine flow Domino neural connectivity (Thinking) => Domino Chemistry (Body reaction = stress and ...


6

I found an interesting article that dealt with anxiety and micturition. There are no proven or accepted view on this. There are a few theories as to how this happens. I am quoting it: There are several beliefs for what causes frequent urination from anxiety, and the likelihood is that all of these factors play a role: Muscle Tension – This is one ...


6

Cold-induced diuresis, where kidneys relieve blood pressure by increasing urine production. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold-induced_diuresis The blood pressure is thought to be increased by vasoconstriction due to the cold. One source that supports that theory: Sun, Z. American Journal of Physiology -- Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, ...


6

Interesting question! You ask 3 questions if I am correct: What is tDCS; What are the adverse effects of tDCS (at 0.1 - 2 mA); What are the health benefits (enhanced focus); I will answer your questions one by one: (1) What is tDCS: tDCS devices are TransCranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) devices. They send direct current through (trans) the ...


6

Fluorine has a combination of unique chemical properties, which makes it very useful in drug design : It is small, such that replacing a C-H with a C-F is often possible, from a sterical point of view. Halogens, which share some of the other desirable properties of fluorine, are much larger. It is very electronegative: it will attract electrons strongly, ...


6

Many wild animals will not eat in captivity because they are under stress, few mammals react well to captivity. weird smells and sounds, restricted movement, inability to hide, there are dozens of stressful aspects to captivity that trigger the flight or fight response for small mammals. Lack of appetite is a common stress response in mammals and even when ...


5

I think the main question here is: Is there a term…which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity[?] Yes. There are a couple ways to think about this, but you’re clearly accustomed to differentiating the manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder, so I’ll start with that. There is mania (excerpted from DSM 5*): A. A distinct period of ...


5

It is not really making you vomit not directly, it is making you nauseous if you become too nauseous you vomit.(nausea has multiple triggers but for this I will stick to smell) Nausea exist to keep you from eating toxic food and to help you get rid of it if you do, the reflex is a balance between the biological cost of a meal(minimal) and the cost of being ...


4

This is a widely researched topic in the overlap between social sciences and evolutionary biology. Evolution has become very influential in understanding human interaction and preferences. This chapter from "The Adapted Mind : Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture" will give you an idea of how all this plays out in the big picture - its a ...


4

Assuming that our emotions are the psychological manifestations of chemical changes in our bodies (an assumption I have no trouble with but one that others may take umbrage at), any emotion will be different. If your brain can distinguish between two emotions, then the underlying chemistry through which these emotions are expressed will be different. This ...


4

Yeah, it's not good: Social isolation (SI) rearing in rodents causes a variety of behavioral changes, including hyperlocomotion, anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits. These behavioral abnormalities in rodents may be related to the symptoms in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity ...


4

I have some insight into this from an engineering perspective. Years ago, I worked on some computational and search algorithms which used a growth factor to determine how far to widen a search space, or how much more memory to allocate. For some of these algorithms, I ran a series of random trials to search for an optimal growth factor and found that for ...


4

Assuming that we are talking about a situation at the physical limit of the brain: Speaking a word will always be slower than pushing a button. A whole word requires a contraction of the diaphragm to push out air so this air can be modulated by another sequence of contractions and relaxations of the vocal chords. So contracting finger muscles is very ...


4

"Do we have free will?" It's a big question. DNA (among other epigenetic factors) code for proteins, so ultimately it determine our cells, which in turn are responsible for our neurology, although how this translates to behavior is variable depending on factors beyond DNA@Remi.b's answer. De facto you're asking about the extent that our brain ...


4

Could certainly be physiological. After eating more blood is diverted towards the smooth muscles around organs for digestion. This will mean your skeletel muscles have decreased blood flow so less nutrients such as Glucose available to make contractions. As you have less energy available to contract the skeletal mucles you're more than likely to feel ...


4

limbs are light weight compared to bodies, if you knock an animal around (and it has no active correction AKA is not alive) it will tend to end up on its back just due to where its center of gravity is.


3

There has been a study by Jackson, Meltzoff & Decety (2005) who investigated the neurocorrelates involved in the perception of pain. In order to assess this, they carried out an fMRI study in which their subjects were shown photographs of of feet and hands in situations that are likely to evoke pain and also a control set of photos that were free of any ...


3

I'm not sure what you mean by psychology exactly, but assuming you are referring to a persons mental state there is a known link between stress and immunity. This link occurs through neuro-endocrine pathways. The central nervous system and endocrine (hormonal) systems are linked through the hypothalamus, a key controller of hormone release in the central ...


3

Anger is a common emotion in most animals and it is highly related to stress. At time of anger body usually releases stress hormones and the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. Anger is an emotional response related to one's psychological interpretation of having been ...


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