14

I looked at the original paper, Blank and Goodman "DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields" Int J Radiation Biology, 87:4, 409-415, DOI:10.3109/09553002.2011.538130. To be honest I can't give concrete reasons to doubt it, but here are a few things that raise my suspicions: it is a review article that relies heavily on self-citation (15/50 ...


12

Microwave ovens can indeed kill bacteria in food by heating them to high temperatures. For example, this article found that microwave heating could kill all of the Salmonella bacteria in a chicken thigh sample: The effect of microwave heating on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w) to ...


9

I think you have a fundamental misunderstanding of the chemical reactions involved in radiation therapy. Neither photon based or proton based therapies "create electrons", but they do cause ionization by adding enough energy to existing electrons around atoms so that the electron is ejected from the atom, creating an ion or free radical, which can then ...


8

Some fungi have radiotropism; they grow toward radiation sources. Melanin-expressing (melanotic) fungi migrate toward radioactive sources, which enhance their growth. According to this paper. These Melanotic fungi inhabit some of the most extreme habitats on earth such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl and the highlands of Antarctica, both of ...


8

Dr. Bailey wrote a short piece that hints at the reasons behind why she expected what she expected: Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes that protect them from damage and from “fraying” – much like the end of a shoestring. Telomeres are critical for maintaining chromosome and genome stability. However, telomeres naturally shorten as our cells divide, and ...


6

No, one can't confirm age by carbon dating. That doesn't mean we can't make a decent guess by other methods. There is an interesting case of a 33 year old Texas woman who enrolled in 10th grade in Texas. She said she had no transcripts because she had been homeschooled. She looked like a teenager and acted like a one too. She even fooled her new 23 year old ...


6

Radiation poisoning causes mutations in DNA that affect normal cell function, often causing them to die. Cells normally have a number of repair mechanisms but if the damage is too great they won't be able to do so. In particular, cells that are dividing quickly will not have time to repair their DNA before division and so die far quicker than other cells. ...


6

It's actually because of the greater risk "from breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers" (article). There's a more scientific write-up here, and while I don't have access the abstract implies that a more rigorous update of the exposure criteria upheld sex differences. From a more terrestrial perspective, The Nuclear Information and Resource Service (nirs.org) ...


5

The type of radiation is quite different in a medical X-ray vs. an airport scanner. Medical X-rays are high frequency (beyond ultraviolet) radiation, typically on a wavelength of a few angstroms. While I would emphasize that @Ram is right to point out that there is not very much radiation in a medical X-ray since electronic detectors have been in place ...


5

$2.45~\rm GHz$ is well into the microwave region, which is usually defined as radio waves with a frequency of greater than $1~\rm GHz$. Microwaves can be harmful. If you stood in front of a $1~\rm MW$ microwave dish, you would be cooked basically instantly. But that doesn't mean they are harmful in small doses: if you stand in front of a $1~\rm MW$ visible ...


5

Would that be a good thing? Recent research from the Samson lab at MIT suggests that there are side effects from amplifying the DNA repair mechanism. Hyperactivity of a base-excision repair (BER) protein called AAG in mice caused a positive feedback loop in DNA repair signaling that triggered macrophages to attack retinal cells, leading to a cycle of ...


4

Addition to the previous answer First you need to understand how radiation causes cellular damage. EM waves like γ-rays, X-rays and high-energy UV (in certain molecules even visible light) can knock out the electrons from the atom and create an ion and free radicals by breaking chemical bonds. This term — ionizing radiation is not used for low energy UV ...


4

Since it is clear from the source in your question that melanin can absorb energy from gamma rays, yes higher concentrations of it would reduce the energy of gamma rays getting through the skin. However this would not provide any real relative protection, the gamma rays are still going to go right through your skin and start damaging DNA. Gamma rays are ...


4

Yes, this can happen, although the risk is low. The problem is that some tumors need to be irradiated since the cannot be operated (this is true for some brain tumors). Here the radiation therapy is the therapy of choice. The effect of the therapy is that the tumor cells get a high radiation dose which either kills them or drives them into apoptosis. The ...


4

According to Paul Stamets, Gomphidius glutinosus is especially well suited to collecting Cesium-137: G. glutinosus has been reported to absorb – via the mycelium – and concentrate radioactive Cesium 137 more than 10,000-fold over ambient background levels. That article and Stamets' book Mycelium Running have more details on other species.


4

Yup. Radiation induced secondary cancers exist and vary in their site of incidence and risk of incidence based on the site of treatment. In breast cancers treated with radiation, for example , there is upto a 3 fold increase in relative risk relative to the general population for leukaemias within five years and 1.5 times the relative risk for secondary lung ...


4

Our skin contains quite a lot of water and I think this is answers the question: The absorption of UV light by this water goes drastically up when you shift to shorter wavelengts with a minimum absorption in the UV-A spectrum. See this figure (from here): So water has a very low absorption around 340-350nm (UV-A) and a very high absorption at shorter ...


4

Usually we don't ask why in biology because the explanation is always the same, it was good enough for survival. But here are a couple of explanations. The radiation peak from the sun is in the visible range of the spectrum, between 400nm-700nm with the highest point around 550nm as can be seen here or calculated from Wien's law and the sun temperature. That'...


3

Great question. It is unfortunate that more people don't understand what "radiation" is and how it affects biology. Firstly, you must distinguish between ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Wikipedia describes the former rather well: Ionizing (or ionising) radiation is radiation composed of particles that individually carry enough ...


3

This is an interesting - and highly debated question. Generally there are two completely different directions of thinking when talking about dangerous substances (this applies to dangerous chemicals as well): The linear no-threshold model (LNT). The hormesis model, in our case the model of radiation hormesis. Summarizing the models the LNT model says that ...


3

In the most technical sense, yes. In a practical sense, no. Average background radiation dose from food and water sources is ~.3 mSv according to the UN. Given that it takes 1 full Sv to increase cancer risk by ~5-6%, it seems unlikely that, under normal conditions, variability in consumption of water will change risk in a significant fashion. Now, when ...


3

I'm no expert, and this is more of a physics answer rather than biology. The microwaves will not reach all of the food. This is why you get hot and cold spots. The rotating plate mitigates this to some extent, but not all of the food will receive a blast. However heat will slowly spread throughout the food. If the contaminated bits are hot enough for long ...


3

This study has received next to no media coverage. With RFR impacting so many people it makes me wonder, is this study valid? Well first of all, lets be clear: that is not a study. Its a review article, basically a paper that summarizes a series of studies published. The review itself isn't valid or invalid necessarily, it simply takes a series of papers (...


3

Is background radiation a critical component of evolution? No, it most certainly is not. The DNA replication and DNA repair mechanisms aren't perfect and errors happen without any external cause or catalyst. You could say mutations happen on their own. There are mutagens that also cause DNA damage or mutations, but they're merely affecting the DNA ...


3

How far could we go towards engineering a space-durable human species? I think this question is likely to get closed as off-topic. It is extremely hypothetical and would be a better fit on WorldBuilding.SE. But here is my messy attempt to answer this question. Assumptions So, I guess in your question, you assume that we know everything about how our ...


3

Keep in mind that microwaves kill organisms via heat, and in particular, heating mainly water. This is contrast to ionizing radiation, for example as obtained from the cobalt used in commercial food radiation. If the pathogen does not contain, or is not sufficiently adjacent to liquid water, or is not sensitive to heat, it may persist. As an explanation, ...


3

Good question, but I'm not sure if anyone really knows the answers. The governments of Japan and the U.S. have both been very secretive at best, while an army of propagandists have made it very difficult to distinguish between truth and fiction. Any health effects are likely to be too small and gradual to make headlines. For example, suppose there was a 1% ...


3

Not only pure DNA, UV radiations are one of the main causes of skin cancer because they damage cellular DNA in skin cells. Talking about frequency range, two different types of UV radiations damage DNA in two different ways: UV-A radiation damages DNA in indirect ways. UV-A radiation easily generates free radicals, such as hydroxyl and oxygen radicals, ...


2

Yes, you are right. If the food just fall on the floor and you microwave it, maybe that could kill most of bacteria or disinfect virus. bacteria are living organism, normally can't tolerate over 100 ℃, and virus' protein coats are not stable too. However! maybe there are Spores which are generated from gram positive bacteria, the power of microwave or oven ...


2

Afaik. radio waves don't have enough energy to cause anything similar to the damage ionizing radiation (gamma rays) does. What it can cause is probably heat damage similar to microwave ovens. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health, a U.S. Federal Standard limits the amount of microwaves ...


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