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This is a interesting question and for a long time it was thought that they do not age. In the meantime there are some new papers which say that bacteria do indeed age. Aging can be defined as the accumulation of non-genetic damages (for example oxidative damage to proteins) over time. If too much of these damages are accumulated, the cell will eventually ...


42

Short answer Shedding or reabsorbing the endometrial lining is energetically advantageous to the female.The advantage of shedding over re-absorption may be that sperm-born pathogens are removed from the uterus. A more parsimonious explanation, however, is that the endometrium in primates has developed into too large of a structure to be completely reabsorbed ...


41

Sexes (male and female) are generally defined in terms of Anisogamy, which means that there are size differences between the gametes (i.e. the reproductive cells that fuse at fertilization). The sex with smaller gametes is defined as male and the sex with larger gametes is defined as female, and individuals that can produce both types of gametes are called ...


29

You have clearly given this a lot of thought. Unfortunately, as @adam.r said, you are laboring under certain misapprehensions. The quick answer is that each generation does not "improve" on the last. That is a common misconception. In a bit more detail: First of all, your copying metaphor is a bad one. There was no "perfect original", I expand on this theme ...


27

Cells of umbilical cord - mom's or son's? Answer: Son's. The interface you are looking for is in the placenta. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placenta Formally the fetal side of the placenta is called the Chorion frondosum, which develops from the outer cells of blastocyst (trophoblast), and the maternal side of the placenta, Decidua basalis, which ...


22

Note: This is based on literature searches I've done a while ago out of general curiosity. I'm in no way an expert on human reproduction. First, I'm not sure if you are asking about evolutionary reasons or the developmental causes for for a difference in sex ratio. Here, I will focus on the developmental causes. There is much evidence for a male bias in ...


22

Welcome to Biology StackExchange. Am I remembering this incorrectly? No, you're remembering it correctly. I think you're talking about slime molds. You'll find more information on the wiki page Is this the video you saw? These images are pretty cool. Is this even possible? Yes (given that it exists). There is no way to correctly answer this ...


21

Nice question! It is actually very difficult to do so because humans, obviously, are far more complex than some animal species which naturally show parthenogenesis. Just to mention, there are female-only animals also present in nature, such as New Mexico whiptail, which reproduce only by parthenogenesis, meaning that it is not as impractical as one might ...


20

Rice and Salt$^1$ bred fruit flies for 35 generations and from one line of flies created two groups that were isolated from each other reproductively. They could not interbreed because they no longer bred in the same environment. Depending on one's definition of 'species' this could be a case of artificial speciation. $^1$Rice WR, Salt GW (1988), Speciation ...


17

Yes the males of a group of bony fish Syngnathidae can bear offsprings or as you say produce offsprings. This group includes Seahorses and Pipefishes. In some species the male have either a brood pouch attached to the trunk or its tail while in others the egg is attached to the trunk or tail laid by the female.The fertilisation takes place in the pouch or in ...


14

So most cells require growth factors and survival factors to stay alive in an organism. Cells which stop receiving survival factors, such as sperm, undergo a process of programmed cell death (PCD) called apoptosis. Some cells will also undergo necrosis, or autophagy, among other types of PCD. Lachaud et al. performed a study in 2004 on the contribution of ...


12

The concept of a human/chimp hybrid is called a humanzee. No humanzees have ever been recorded despite the fact that sexual intercourse between humans and chimps have been recorded on several occasions. This suggests that male-human/female-chimpanzee is not capable of producing viable offspring, at the very least. As to why, several reasons will contribute: ...


12

The need for birth control has been a concept for thousands of years and remains an important issue for men and women today, the need for contraception helped humans to achieve control over our population and healthy sexual relationships without having the fear of pregnancy. The medieval contraception methods mostly relies on plant based oral contraceptives ...


12

Short answer People with androgen insensitivity syndrome do not have a functional uterus and cannot bear a child. Background Androgen-insensitive genetic males may develop female genitalia and internal female reproductive organs. However, in both partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) the uterus is ...


11

When you say, why don't we see more sexually reproducing species than asexual, I presume you are referring to bacteria, protists, archaea, some fungi, etc. Most multicellular organisims do reproduce sexually, which makes sense since an organism would need to be multicellular to have cells specialized for gametes. As you stated, the advantage is that sexual ...


11

The maternal and fetal blood circulation systems are completely separate. The embryo's blood cells start developing at around week 5 gestational age (3 weeks after conception), the same way any other tissue is developed by the fetus itself. By around week 7 gestational age, a circulatory system has developed and the heart has started beating. All nutrition ...


10

The frequency rises with maternal age due to a peculiarity of meoisis in female mammals. Meiosis is originated in the fetal ovary, arresting at metaphase I with the homologous chromosomes aligned for segregation. Cells remain in this state until the time of ovulation, often decades later in humans. The longer cells remain in the arrested state, ...


10

First of all, I should quote the sentence from the MOST reliable ophthalmology sourcing in the world - American Academy of Ophthalmology: Section 11 - "Lens and Cataract" "The equatorial diameter of the unfixed human lens measures 2 mm at 12 weeks and 6 mm at 35 weeks. Both the growth and the maturation of lenticular fibers continue throughout life." The ...


10

Diane Dodd's experiments on Drosophila pseudoobscura would be another example of lab-based speciation. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2409365?__redirected To summarise - four populations each adapted to feeding on a starch-based diet and a maltose-based diet were evolved in the lab to test effects on mating preferences; compared to what is expected by random,...


9

I’ll add a slightly different perspective, although terdon’s answer already contains the relevant facts. The thing that makes DNA endure in the face of imperfect copying is that, like computer storage, it’s digital. The relevant property of digital data here is that individual pieces of information aren’t given on a scale, they’re drawn from a strongly ...


9

First of all, in eukaryotes (as far as I'm aware), older cells can be distinguished from younger cells due to telomere shortening, so there is an ageing process. HeLa cells mentioned by @Gary Chou have a more active telomerase which mitigates telomere shortening, allowing cells to continue to divide indefinitely. I think it's a very interesting question ...


9

You might be interested in this article. In this study they created haploid ES cells from artificially activating an unfertilized oocyte and growing the haploid cells. These cells, when introduced in the ICM, give rise to viable chimeras. In another study, haploid androgenetic ES cells were created by injecting a sperm into an enucleated oocyte. These ...


9

There is an article in the Journal of Popular Science from 1885. However, I do know there is at least one more recent article floating around some where since I read it. At the moment, I can't find it but will update if or when I do. The article goes on to state that during times of scarcity the number of male births outweighs the number of females whereas ...


9

Short answer Technologically yes, but practically no, because there would be no surrogate mother available to bring the artificial XX zygote to term. Background Theoretically a cell with two male Xs can be generated, given that it is technically possible to shuttle single chromosomes between cells (Paulis, 2011). However, assuming that in your future ...


9

Oops I wrote a lot! This is almost a very brief introduction to some concepts of population genetics. A little bit of terminology first Locus A locus (plur. loci) is a position on a chromosome. Allele At a specific locus, different individuals may have different variants. One individual might be ATTCTA while another might be ATTCAA for example. These ...


9

Evolution does not work based on an organism (or designer) "seeing" a problem and seeking a solution. Evolution via natural selection works when members of a population that have a certain heritable trait are better at reproducing than other members of that population. Because they are better at reproducing, subsequent generations of the population have a ...


9

The study is basically worthless. First, the study was not constructed to test this hypothesis, so it's just something interesting that may point to future studies. It does not provide sufficient evidence. But the biggest problem is that the study was of 52 individuals with only one or two samples, which makes it statistically useless. Any uncontrolled ...


9

They don't go into any detail on the sites you link to and I don't have time to look into patents, but from the context it sounds like they may be using a tetracycline repressible promoter. This is often referred to as a Tet-Off promoter. The core elements of these promoters were discovered in the bacterium Escherichia coli1 and several variations have been ...


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