I would point that maybe there is an organism that can pass enough nutrients to 1 generation to survive and reproduce, but not continuously generation after generation.
Search in this camp, you may find something.
No, I think this fails even on simply definitional terms. That is, Life is (sometimes) defined as meeting certain criteria, such exhibiting growth, metabolism, and response to stimuli. Those will all require intake of some external substance at some point.
To get even more pedantic, all cells have a cell membrane, which is selectively permeable to certain ...
You may need to clarify your question: As written, this would be the biological equivalent of a perpetual motion machine. No such organism could reproduce without either violating the first and second laws of thermodynamics, or ultimately evaporating into nothingness as it divides.
Deep inhalation and deep exhalation are informal terms and cannot be defined with lung volumes, because deep just means deeper than tidal volume.
In the first part of the question deep refers to maximal:
Deep inhalation that means inhaling the air with effort as much as possible (it doesn't matter from how deep exhalation) = maximal inhalation