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Ribosomes are the only means we know by which cells produce proteins. Consequently, all proteins are made by a ribosome, including the proteins that then become part of a new ribosome. It's never a question of "more proteins than required" because there are different types of proteins and to make a ribosome, you need those specific types of proteins known as ...


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In general, you extract DNA, then PCR out the 16rRNA coding regions and finally sequence them. Here some links http://press.igsb.anl.gov/earthmicrobiome/protocols-and-standards/16s/ http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0068739 https://support.illumina.com/content/dam/illumina-marketing/documents/products/other/16s-metagenomics-...


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It is not conserved, its sequence is not the same in all bacteria. Indeed, it has a slow rate of evolution (mutation) that make it perfect to build phylogenetic trees. As correctly suggested by David in his comment, here are some references about the 16s rRNA and on how it is used to identify known and unknown bacteria. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/...


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The three RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are very similar to each other, yet not identical. As described in this article, there are subunits that are specific for each type of polymerases. In addition to providing unique substrates that polymerase-specific subunits bind to give each of the RNAPs their specific functionality, the two largest subunits also shape ...


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Here is a good explanation of the theory and chemistry behind DMS footprinting, from chapter 11 of Probing RNA structure within living cells : In vivo chemical probing assay using dimethyl sulfate (DMS). (A) DMS methylates the N1 atom of adenosines and the N3 atom of cytosines. Both of these positions are located on the Watson–Crick face of the respective ...


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Generally most organisms have multiple copies of the genes/regions coding for ribosomal RNA (since it's needed quite a lot). Additionally these regions can be repetitive or otherwise similar to sequence or place correctly in the genome, therefore it's generally harder to find good genomic sequences for rRNA compared to other genes. Based on your link, it ...


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RNA STRAND v2.0 - The RNA secondary STRucture and statistical ANalysis Database http://www.rnasoft.ca/strand/ 16S rRNA: secondary structure file in ct format http://www.rnasoft.ca/strand/show_file.php?format=CT&molecule_ID=CRW_00111&check_out_the=View+the+RNA+sequence+and+secondary+structure+for+molecule+CRW_00111 5S rRNA: secondary structure ...


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Ultimately, it depends on what insights you are trying to glean from your sequencing data, but from a purely scientific perspective, there's almost never a reason to pool samples in the the way you described. You pro-con list is not far off, in terms of information lost or gained, but I think it overlooks some of the down-stream consequences of losing that ...


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When cells are not producing proteins they are performing their specialized functions. Consider red blood cells carrying oxygen. Or gut epithelial cells aiding in your digestion. The list goes on...liver cells have a different role than the keratin cells in your hair. There is a lot of transport that goes on as well in an certain cells that is carried ...


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