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Fisher's principle applies to such cases as much as it does to species where only pairs mate. Consider a species where a successful male has exclusive mating with a harem of 20 females, and for each such male, 19 other males are not able to mate. A female has 100% chance of mating, and a male has a 5% (1 in 20) chance of mating. Assume a female has two ...


7

I need to point out one thing, natural selection does not bring species to perfection. The best mutant may not be selected for many reasons. When you have no selection pressure then you have neutral evolution concurring and what takes over instead of natural selection is genetic drift. Genetic drift is just sample error. Say you have 1,000 individuals in ...


6

Sexual Conflict is the word you are looking for! Sexual Conflict occurs whenever the optimal mating strategy for the female and the male differ. For example, in Drosophila, it is beneficial for a male to mate as much as possible, while it is beneficial for a female to mate only a few times.


5

A commonly used empirical example of species selection (a.k.a clade selection, lineage selection) is pelagic larvae in sessile ocean species. See Maliska et al (2013) for a recent paper discussing this in Tunicata and Jablonski & Hunt (2006) for larval modes in gastropods. The idea is to some extent really intuitive - pelagic larvae means higher ...


4

There is no debate The so-called Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) is just a new term for a whole lot of knowledge that roughly speaking everyone acknowledge to be true. EES is really just an extension but does not say anything that conflict with previous theory. There is no conflict and no contradiction. The only debate stand upon whether or not our ...


4

Joan Strassman's work is probably the route to go for this. The short of your answer is that several things mediate who ends up where in the slug: Cheaters are limited from exploiting other clones by high relatedness, kin discrimination, pleiotropy, noble resistance, and lottery-like role assignment. Here's the most relevant paper: Strassmann, J. E....


4

This is called the "Thrifty Gene Hypothesis" which was first used to explain why diabetes is so common. Basically it suggests that these alleles would have provided some kind of advantage, over the other possible alleles at that loci, until the environment changed. Then the environment changed and the allele became harmful. Environments are always changing ...


3

If I understand your question correctly, I've seen this idea in many papers, sometimes stated clearly and sometimes in more implicit terms. After a quick look I found a paper which should be relevant as a starting point for you: Mayor et al. 2007. Spectrum of selection: new approaches to detecting the scale-dependent response to habitat. Ecology 88(7). In ...


3

mgkrebbs has already covered the maths that leads to the preservation of ratio, so I'll not recap. You might have noticed that the argument only remains true if you don't know whether the particular male you produce is likely to be the dominant male or not. If you could "know" in advance that your particular son was more likely to be dominant it would make ...


2

I think there might be several places to read a description of these experiments, but they are discussed extensively in a book by historian-philosopher Lindley Darden, entitled "Theory Change in Science: Strategies from Mendelian Genetics", parts of which are available online. See p. 112 of Darden's book for references to other accounts of these experiments ...


2

I don't have access to Provine's book, and I can't describe the details of the hooded rat experiments, but here is an attempt to explain the importance of the work. Darwin published “Origin of Species” in 1859. He proposed that modern species were all descended from ancestral species, and that evolution proceeded by natural selection. He believed that ...


2

Even if a species lives in abundance, there is still an evolutionary arms race: who reproduces the fastest? Even slight advantages in reproduction rate multiply over the generations. There are, however, cases where selection pressures on specific traits have vanished. For example, for fish living in caves, there is not selection pressure to be able to see, ...


2

I would like to expand a little on Remi.b's answer and point out that there are two key forms of sexual conflict. Sexual conflict arises when the sexes have different routes by which they maximise fitness. In the case of the ducks (and many other species) the males increase fitness by mating as much as possible, whereas females may optimise fitness by ...


2

Some genetic changes occur too fast for selection to take place. Can you please define "genetic change"? Selection can only change the frequency of alleles in a population. It cannot make a new mutation. If by, "genetic change", you mean "mutation", then selection just can't do it. If by "genetic change", you mean change in allele frequency, then the change ...


1

I will try to tackle the terminology first Conserved: That remains identical (or at least very similar) across species. Purifying selection: Is one of the possible forces that lead to conservation of important sequences of DNA, by removing deleterious alleles. So, the phrase simply means that the proportion of the genome that is very similar in sequence ...


1

Flow cytometry looking for your plasmid. These folks labeled their plasmid with a proprietary fluorescent marker, then used flow cytometry to detect cells which had taken up the plasmid. A novel rapid and reproducible flow cytometric method for optimization of transfection efficiency in cells An alternative and more direct method to using fluorescent ...


1

I am not an expert on HIV but I am answering based on general principles. This is a typical example of selection of individuals/populations with different fitness. Reversion to wild-type (WT) would happen if the WT has higher fitness in that environment. Assuming that WT is the fittest under drug-free conditions, it is not difficult to understand that the ...


1

Truncation selection The term truncation selection has been used a lot in theory papers because it is a simple model and because it is of interest to breeders. Truncation selection is most likely more common in a breeding setting than in nature and from wikipedia, truncation selection is defined as specific to breeding In animal and plant breeding, ...


1

Yes, GMO are safe to consume! See Is Genetically Modified food safe to consume?. Now, there are other (potential or real) issues related to the use of GMOs such as for example a loss of genetic diversity if every farmer plant the exact same strain. Talking about such issues will require talking about ethics, economy and sociology and it can therefore not be ...


1

DISCLAIMER I know little on the subject. I want to first express my personal views of the existing difficulties at answering this question and then I will attempt to give a short overview of the potential answers I could find. ISSUES WITH THE QUESTION Consciousness vs higher cognitive abilities I personally find it hard to disentangle evolutionary ...


1

I think you are conflating selection and evolution. Diversifying selection is when the variance of a trait in the population increases and even potentially becomes bimodal. This may lead to divergent evolution, i.e. a speciation event. Whereas directional selection still leads to evolution but not necessarily a the formation of a new species.


1

Most inserts will disrupt beta-gal expression (by shifting the reading frame and introducing stop codons) and therefore remove the enzymatic activity required to cleave X-gal and produce the blue color. Your source is agreeing with you - inserting a stop codon will stop translation (not transcription) and keep the white color.


1

Issues with the post Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection). This question has nothing to do with sexual selection. What do you mean by ...


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