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Short answer Withdrawal effects are generally associated with drugs that induce feelings of euphoria by stimulating the reward center of the brain, either directly (cocaine, morphine) or indirectly (alcohol, nicotine). The classic hallucinogens have little effect on the dopaminergic pathways and hence do not cause serious withdrawal effects as observed with ...


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Interesting notion. However, the main effects of the indoleamine-class of psychoactive compounds, including psilocybin and LSD (Shulgin, 1997), are generally ascribed to 5-HT2A receptors and the glutamatergic system (Aghajanian & Marek, 1999). The stimulant effects of the phenetylamines (PEAs) such as amphetamine and related compounds (Shulgin, 1991) ...


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No, it isn't considered an SSRI. SSRI stands for selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor, which designates the mechanism by which this category of drug (supposedly) works: on the serotonin transporters in the brain. It's a term only used for a limited range of drugs, like sertraline and citalopram. 5-HTP (Oxitriptan ...


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I don't think there is an obvious contradiction here. (1) Mapping neuronal function to the perception of threat (or emotions in general) is often advertised as well-understood, but in fact it is not. Serotonin-concentration-based models (such as the monoaminergic theory of depression) are unavoidably imprecise because ”the brain is not soup”. Additionally, ...


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There are five subunits to this receptor (5-HT3), which are encoded by the genes HTR3(A-D) and differentially expressed depending on cell location in the (human) body. In contrast to the information in the previous answer, my first source actually has shown HTR3A to be most highly expressed in the CNS. The others are almost exclusively found in cells of the ...


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The mouse and rat dorsal raphe nuclei contain about 9000 and about 11.500 serotonergic neurons, respectively. It turns out the corresponding 1988 and 1982 references are widely cited - directly as well as indirectly. I could not find any newer data/evaluations.


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I think you'll like this article. It's on monoamine release / reuptake inhibition for a host of different psychedelic and empathogenic drugs. This wakefulness inducing effect you describe for LSD is widely reported for all common 5-HT2 mediated psychedelics.


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You're right, those are all important! There are several good reviews on the mechanism of action antidepressants. I like Molecular Pharmacology, by Nestler, or even Principles of Neural Science, by Kandel. I think a textbook is going to be your best bet, in terms of getting up to speed here, as this is largely an already-researched issue, but here are some ...


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