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Humans are believed to be mostly serial monogamists with a noticeable components of secret cheating. Serial monogamy means most will have a single partner at a time but will likely have several partners throughout their life, there is however an under current (~15%) of hidden cheating in most studied populations. Also I say mostly becasue human behavior is ...


12

The easy answer is simply, no. The longer answer is that it depends on whatever cultural norms that are practiced in a given area at a certain time. Often powerful men in history had multiple lovers, but had arranged marriages. Like wise open relationships were very normal in the 60's and 70's of the 20th century. Also polygamous relationships are ...


10

The whole point about your question is to define what is an "evolved trait"? The concept of "evolved trait" does not exist in evolutionary biology. Here are various definitions I can think of that could apply to the expression "evolved traits". Heritable Traits Does evolved traits mean heritable traits? A trait may be heritable or not. See for example my ...


7

I agree with @Amory in the sense that Hamilton's rule is not a rule that applies to each specific individual and explain their behavior (or other traits). The Hamilton's rule describe the direction (and not the dynamic) of how a social traits evolve. A social trait is any trait which does not only affect the fitness of its carrier but also affect the fitness ...


5

What fields are sociobiology and evolutionary psychology? Sociobiology (aka. social evolution) is a subfield of evolutionary biology. Evolutionary psychology is a subfield of both evolutionary biology and psychology. Evolutionary psychology is, for the moment, very theoretical without much (if any) empirical testing. For this reason, not only natural ...


5

Persecution is not a term often used in zoology, compared for example to the notion of social exclusion and hierarchy disputes/social animal hierarchy. That is because humans incarcerate animals which would otherwise flee to safe distance from the group if they are attacked. Wild Mammals, birds, fish, other animals with free movement can normally get safe ...


5

"Hamilton's rule states that if rB>C then a gene giving altruistic behaviour will increase in frequency in the population." To start here are some examples of how Hamilton's Rule works... In a population of four individuals a pair of adults mate. A first unrelated male (r=0) is genetically coded to help raise their offspring by an allele (selfless) at ...


4

As far as I understand it, Hamilton's "rule" isn't really meant to apply individually, it's meant as a way of thinking about kin selection and altruism that can be reduced to individual cases. The reality is that B and C can rarely, if ever, be easily measured or determined. If the two sides were equal then who knows? You'd have to observe it. Presumably ...


4

This is a widely researched topic in the overlap between social sciences and evolutionary biology. Evolution has become very influential in understanding human interaction and preferences. This chapter from "The Adapted Mind : Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture" will give you an idea of how all this plays out in the big picture - its a ...


3

I just read a book on the Evolution of Sex and one of the questions was why primates have lost the estrous cycle. The thought was that the sexual desire of the female anytime rather then periodically tends to keep the male "at Home" ensuring survival of the female and offspring. This implies that males are genetically engineered for monogamy but since ...


3

how can kin selection be altruistic? Part of you confusion is purely semantic. Kin selection cannot be altruistic. Kin selection is an evolutionary process. Altruism is a behaviour. Saying "kin selection is altruistic" is like saying "natural selection is flying" (when thinking of selection for flying abilities in, say, flying squirrels). Altruism ...


3

In bees that dance in the dark (not all do, some dance in the light) they don't watch the dance, they participate. The follow the dancer using their antenna and sound to keep track of them. Beehives are often dark, so instead of watching the scout dance, the recruit bees follow the dancer using their antenna and the sounds produced during the dance to ...


3

No, they are not. Polygyny, polyandry and group marriage are, or have been, practiced in various cultures. Polyamory and other forms of non-monogamy are practiced. There are estimates that four to five percent of Americans are involved in consensual non-monogamy (despite social pressure for monogamy). A sizeable portion of what the porn industry is ...


2

This is an old and interesting question: how do we explain apparent trends in evolution without falling into the trap of teleology or goal-directed evolution, the idea that evolution is working toward a particular end point? I don't know the answer, and I don't know if anyone knows the answer, but at least two books have tackled the question in a serious ...


1

I disagree with the assumption that biological systems have evolved to become more complex. A clear example of the contrary is found in the Rickettsia species of bacteria which live inside the cells of its host (obligated intracellular parasites). Their genomes contain split genes, gene remnants and pseudogenes that may represent steps of a genome ...


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