That appears to be an Oleander Hawk-moth a member of the Sphinx moth family.
I think the only other possibility for Taiwan is the quite similar Jade Hawk-moth, but that supposedly has a dark purplish colored head.
Image for comparison:
Source: Shantanu Kuveskar / CC BY-SA.
Looks like Sarcoscypha Austriaca (scarlet elfcup). It's actually used in many textbooks as a representative species for the Ascomycetes.
Details from Wikipedia and Messiah.edu both confirm that this species is found in Europe and that it is typically found either as solitary or clustered fruiting bodies (2-5 cm wide) growing among rotting wood matter in ...
Those appear to be the eggs of a species of apple snail in the genus Pomacea, probably the introduced invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), but there are at least two other candidates1,2.
You can learn more about this species and the problems it causes from this Columbia University webpage.
For comparison — Figure 3 from "The identity, ...
Here's a paper in Current Biology1 on the discovery of a species of bee (Anthophora pueblo) in Utah (US) that burrows through sandstone. Pretty cool!
Sandstone is harder than limestone, so I suppose it could be possible for this type of bee to get through your wall material, though Utah is a long flight from Israel.
Perhaps you have discovered a related ...
It appears to be a Banana Spider:
... a male Heteropoda venatoria, also called a Banana Spider. The female is a more robust spider with shorter legs. This is the spider that is responsible for the rumors that tarantulas come into the U.S. with bananas because they are often spotted emerging frrom a bunch of bananas in a fruit store in the North. ...
Looks like the proximal end of a rib of a large mammal (cow, horse, deer). Without information about how large it is, it is not possible to get closer to an identification. It's not a claw and very likely not a fossil. It just looks old and dirty.
Here's a horse rib cage (from https://www.rodnikkel.com/content/saddle-tree-blog-from-shop-and-desk/the-rib-...
These look a lot like dust mites, a collective term to describe cosmopolitan house-dwelling mites in the Pyroglyphidae family.
The most common species in temperate regions belong to the Dermatophagoides genus, including D. pteronyssinus (the European house dust mite) and D. farinae (the American house dust mite).
See here for a ...
That actually looks like some sort of caddisfly larvae in its case to me.
Are you sure that's it's 'body' & not a case?
Did you find it in water?
Or a Case Bearing Clothes Moth (Caddisfly are closely related to moths).
This one (a clothes moth larvae) looks very similar to your image.
It looks to me like one of the Amaurobiidae - the Hacklemesh weavers, often called Lace Spiders for their fluffy, cottony silk snares/shelters that they spin under rocks and logs. It's an adult male from the big boxing glove pedipalp structures in front of the face, which is presumably why it was out in the open; it was looking for love.
As to which one it ...