11 votes

How does a (stem) cell keep track of its own 'specialization'?

The process of "specialization" is usually referred to in biology as "differentiation". Largely, differentiation is a function of expression of transcription factors; these ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.4k
8 votes
Accepted

Do stem cells have no epigenome?

So there are a couple of things to bear in mind. pluripotent does not mean that all genes are active. It means that the stem cells have the ability to form different cell types. However, it still ...
Jei Diwakar's user avatar
6 votes

How do stem cells produce 200 billion new blood cells every day? Does 1 stem cell division result in production of just 1 blood cell or many?

The hematopoietic stem cells are quite rare, and each progenitor cell produced by a stem cell gives rise to a large number of red blood cells (and other blood cell types). I'm not sure if the precise ...
Roland's user avatar
  • 5,705
6 votes

Why does hair turn white but not skin?

The answer to this question has its reason in the hair cycle. Our hair goes through a cycle of growth. At the end of this cycle, the cells in the hair follicle die and have to be replenished before a ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
5 votes
Accepted

Apart from nerve cells and muscle cells, what types of cells do not undergo mitosis in adult man?

To answer the numbered questions: In general, neurons never divide by mitosis. However, I believe you may have unintentionally misphrased your question; there are functional neural stem cells in the ...
VVayfarer's user avatar
  • 258
5 votes

A cure for radiation exposure?

Would that be a good thing? Recent research from the Samson lab at MIT suggests that there are side effects from amplifying the DNA repair mechanism. Hyperactivity of a base-excision repair (BER) ...
Alex Reynolds's user avatar
4 votes

What is going on in these cells?

they might be embryoid bodies: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embryoid_body
4D Neuron's user avatar
  • 360
3 votes
Accepted

Is that true that plant stem cells can be used in humans?

https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/6.htm ... Viruses are currently used to introduce the reprogramming factors into adult cells, and this process must be carefully controlled and tested before the ...
Doug Thompson's user avatar
3 votes

Lobed Nuclei still count as One nucleus?

Yes. Lobation is when a nucleus deforms, but it is still a single compartment. How the nucleus deforms can be helpful in roughly determining the cell type by visual inspection.
S Pr's user avatar
  • 6,202
3 votes

How far is stem cell research from being to generate a new organ?

Sperm can already be generated using stem cells http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2016/02/25/scientists-grow-working-sperm-from-stem-cells/#.V-UADBV94o8 Also, heart, liver and kidney cells as ...
alec_djinn's user avatar
  • 3,098
3 votes
Accepted

Special bacteria in infants

No, no human (or any other eukaryote lineage) are able to "create bacteria". The story you were told is wrong. However and interestingly, female parasitoid wasps seem to "create viruses" (Herniou et ...
Remi.b's user avatar
  • 68.1k
3 votes

Why do stem cells injected into muscle become muscle cells?

Looking at the paper itself, we find that they prepared the stem cells to have myogenic (muscle-specific) properties. They first injected stem cells into the irradiated (which kills muscle stem cells) ...
Frieke's user avatar
  • 1,127
3 votes

How does a (stem) cell keep track of its own 'specialization'?

Transcription factors usually initiate the cellular changes, but it's mostly the chromatin state of the nucleus that maintains the state of a cell and stops it from changing back and forth. Embryonic ...
markur's user avatar
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3 votes
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Why aren't iPSC's created in vivo?

Pluripotent stem cells, regardless if they’re of embryonic or iPSC origin, will form a very nasty (and often very deadly) form of cancer called teratoma when present in adult tissue (Wesselschmidt ...
markur's user avatar
  • 1,769
2 votes

Genotype of children conceived after stem cell transplant?

Spermatozoa are produced in a process called spermatogenesis. They come from germ cells, which in the human males are located in the testes. These are not affected by stem cell transplants. In ...
YviDe's user avatar
  • 2,258
2 votes

What is the difference between pluripotent and totipotent cells?

Expending on Gerando Furtado link Totipotent cells can differentiate into three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm), into cells of the cytotrophoblast layer or syncytiotrophoblast layer of ...
JayCkat's user avatar
  • 2,926
2 votes

How does the cell cycle affect stem cell fate?

If you are referring to cells that are differentiated in adults: Some somatic cells in multi-cellular organisms are post-mitotic, that is, the cells cannot divide, or said in other words, they don't ...
Figares's user avatar
  • 31
2 votes

Special bacteria in infants

Whoever told you this story is wrong. Bacteria are prokaryotic single celled organisms, humans are eukaroytic multicellular organisms. These are so different, that it is impossible to convert one into ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
2 votes

What are the principles of stem cell engineering?

The roles of the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 in resetting the somatic cell epigenome during induced pluripotent stem cell generation Current reprogramming technology, pioneered by ...
EMX's user avatar
  • 146
2 votes
Accepted

Evolution of leukemia pluripotent short-term cells

Some background: leukemia is an immune cancer so it comes from the hematopoietic system. Thus, it would be useful to look into Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Note that, in general, the (semantic) ...
user3658307's user avatar
2 votes

Are androgenic-anabolic steroids a form of gene editing?

Steroids are not a form of gene editing A gene is a sequence of DNA. Gene editing means changing this DNA sequence, kind of like changing the letters in a book. Essentially all drugs, steroids ...
J--'s user avatar
  • 428
2 votes
Accepted

Self Grown Organs

Could a viable organ be partially grown in a test tube then be hooked up to the host in some way until it is large enough to swap it with the bad organ? Yes. This conceptual possibility already is a ...
tsttst's user avatar
  • 1,597
2 votes
Accepted

Full name for stem cells

Human Embyronic Stem Cells (hESC) can be programmed to differentiate into a number of different types of tissue depending on the signals you give or withhold. Source: BioTime The company Viacyte is ...
CKM's user avatar
  • 8,111
2 votes

Is there natural occurrence of induced pluripotency / expression of Yamanaka factors and what is the evolutionary explanation of that?

What is a pluripotent stem cell? A pluripotent stem cell is a cell that can differentiate into any of the major tissue categories. Every animal exists as a collection of pluripotent stem cells at an ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.4k
2 votes

Is there natural occurrence of induced pluripotency / expression of Yamanaka factors and what is the evolutionary explanation of that?

Regeneration of complex tissues like limbs is known in many animals. Salamander has been used as a model for limb regeneration. During regeneration, the cells at the amputation site de-differentiate ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
  • 35.5k
2 votes
Accepted

A theoretical ethical dilemma

I agree that iPSCs will continue to be developed and will probably be used to make brains at some point in the future. Whilst it's obviously not possible right now, feasibility isn't the issue here. A ...
Robert Gregson's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

Meaning of “gene expression heterogeneity” of embryonic stem cells

Heterogeneity is a noun meaning: the fact of consisting of parts or things that are very different from each other In scientific use the context determines what is differing. The context here is ...
David's user avatar
  • 25.3k
2 votes
Accepted

In plasmid-based transient transfection of mesenchymal stem cells, do I have to select for transfected cells and verify GOI expression via a reporter?

No and Yes, respectively. No, you don't need to select for and generally you can't unless you use something like FACS to sort and capture cells expressing your marker/GOI. Transient transfections are ...
bob1's user avatar
  • 11.8k
2 votes
Accepted

Why do tumours need stem cells, when they can generate their own telomerase?

This is like asking why there are multiple forms/mechanisms of dementia when "one would suffice". To save this from being just a trivial comment, note that the mechanism of elongation ...
Dolphin 613 Motorboat's user avatar
2 votes

Mechanism for switch of embryonic stem cells from "fast" cell cycle to "normal" cell cycle?

This review (doi: 10.1534/genetics.118.301643) states that: Cell cycle progression in the early embryo is likely driven by a single CDK (CDK-1) in association with B-type cyclins. In support of this, ...
markur's user avatar
  • 1,769

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