59

The question is relatively broad and one should take into account that the brain not only consists of neurons, but also glial cells (supportive cells) and pre-mitotic neuronal stem cells. Furthermore, as critical fellow-scientists have indicated, developmental stage is very important, as the developing embryonic brain is very different from the adult brain. ...


11

To add to Christiaan's answer, I'll mention one striking example of long-distance neuronal migration in the adult mammalian brain: the so-called Rostral Migratory Stream found in rodents, in rabbits and both the squirrel and rhesus monkey. Neuronal precursors originating in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain migrate to reach the main olfactory bulb ...


8

The easiest answer to this question is NO. We will not be able to print humans any time soon, if ever. Despite the potential of the technology, it will likely still make more sense to use stem cells to fight genetic diseases, create limited cellular masses such as hearts and other organs, and to do reconstructive surgeries such as skeletal repairs. The ...


8

There are legitimate case reports in credited journals of hyperdontia, or the condition of having supernumerary teeth. Such cases are often associated with congenital syndromes-- cleft lip and palate, trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner's syndrome. I included a case report and a comprehensive review for you below. Case ...


6

The hematopoietic stem cells are quite rare, and each progenitor cell produced by a stem cell gives rise to a large number of red blood cells (and other blood cell types). I'm not sure if the precise number of offspring for the earliest progenitor cells is known in vivo, but recent cell culture models indicate that early progenitors can give rise to as many ...


5

I found a protocol by ATCC for NTERM2 cells, and it didn't mention any specific flask, so any cell culture flask would do. Since ATCC is basically a cell culture bank I trust that their protocol is valid.


5

There is no specific dye for stem cells. You would have to do an immuno-histochemical staining for stem cell markers such as Sox2/Oct4 etc. Usually stem cells have a distinct morphology (round and clustered). You can use Leishman's (or Romanowsky-Giemsa) stain.


5

To answer the numbered questions: In general, neurons never divide by mitosis. However, I believe you may have unintentionally misphrased your question; there are functional neural stem cells in the adult human brain as well, and these are believed to give rise to new neurons throughout the lifespan of an individual. They have only been found in specific ...


5

Would that be a good thing? Recent research from the Samson lab at MIT suggests that there are side effects from amplifying the DNA repair mechanism. Hyperactivity of a base-excision repair (BER) protein called AAG in mice caused a positive feedback loop in DNA repair signaling that triggered macrophages to attack retinal cells, leading to a cycle of ...


4

The difference in designation is the timing of the foundation of the cell line and the tissue that it was sourced from. Embryonic Stem Cells are harvested from the inner cell mass of a Blastocyst around day 5 post fertilization. This is the first or second generation of cells to have started to differentiate, but they still have Pluripotency, which means ...


4

From this article: iPSC's or induced pluripotent stem cells are somatic cells that have been driven to acquire an induced pluripotent cell state. Somatic cells can be any cell of the body except sperm cells, egg cells and undifferentiated stem cells. Investigators can induce these cells to 'return' to a stem cell like state by forcing the expression of key ...


4

The answer to this question has its reason in the hair cycle. Our hair goes through a cycle of growth. At the end of this cycle, the cells in the hair follicle die and have to be replenished before a new hair cycle starts, also the hair falls out eventually. See the figure from reference 1: The replenishment process is done by to two cell types: Epithelial ...


3

It would not be possible to differentiate CSC from normal population non-invasively and select them out. You may do a single cell expression analysis to say if a CSC is present in a population or not but there is no magic bullet method for eliminating them. Also there are several oncogenes and some of them are also required for usual stem cell function. HAT ...


3

Stem cells are not all 'unipotent' - they cannot necessarily differentiate into any type of cell. For instance, resident stem cells in tissues such as muscle - myo-satellite cells - are partially differentiated and during cell division one daughter differentiates further to become a myocyte (for example), and the other daughter the replacement myosatellite ...


3

No. Very early in the development of an organism, it is just a clump of cells. Then those cells communicate, and determine where they are in the clump, which determines their eventual fate in the full organism. In mammals, for instance, cells split into three different layers, and the skin and nerve cells develop from cells in the outermost layer...etc. ...


3

The transplantation is an equivalent of a process that naturally occurs in human body, homing of the hematopoietic stem cells. Immature hematopoietic stem cells have the ability to pass the bone marrow barrier, and therefore is able to migrate between bones and other organs within an individual. (e.g. thymus, which is how it can produce T cells.) Williams ...


3

In almost all metazoa, the pro-germline cells get segregated from other stem cells at an early stage of development and they thrive and differentiate in their neighborhood. This is important in order to preserve the germline. This post provides some basic explanation. However, even drosophila have adult multipotent stem cells and help in the formation of ...


3

When you look at the development of the embryo, at the beginning all cells are totipotent, meaning they can develop into any cell type of the body. This changes relatively fast by differentiation, which means that the totipotent cells develop into more specialized cell types, which then can not give rise to all cell types. So the different germ layers (meso, ...


3

Chimpanzees have fingerprints. Next all you have to do is find the homologue of SMARCAD1 and let the animal testing begin! But actually I doubt it will work. This website goes into some depth and links some additional sources that show fingerprints are developed in the womb and are fully set by 6 months of gestation. It seems likely that SMARCAD1 may ...


3

No, no human (or any other eukaryote lineage) are able to "create bacteria". The story you were told is wrong. However and interestingly, female parasitoid wasps seem to "create viruses" (Herniou et al. 2013). The viruses are part of the wasp genome (lysogenic phase) and detach (lytic phase) in the ovaries only. The viruses, then infect the caterpillar in ...


3

they might be embryoid bodies: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embryoid_body


3

Sperm can already be generated using stem cells http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2016/02/25/scientists-grow-working-sperm-from-stem-cells/#.V-UADBV94o8 Also, heart, liver and kidney cells as well. http://www.popsci.com/scientists-grow-transplantable-hearts-with-stem-cells http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26458176 Full organs are still far. The ...


3

Human Embyronic Stem Cells (hESC) can be programmed to differentiate into a number of different types of tissue depending on the signals you give or withhold. Source: BioTime The company Viacyte is actually developing a technology based on hESC that can be used to rescue loss of function in type-1 diabetes, just as an example. Their process takes hESC to ...


3

https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/6.htm ... Viruses are currently used to introduce the reprogramming factors into adult cells, and this process must be carefully controlled and tested before the technique can lead to useful treatment for humans. In animal studies, the virus used to introduce the stem cell factors sometimes causes cancers. Researchers ...


3

Yes. Lobation is when a nucleus deforms, but it is still a single compartment. How the nucleus deforms can be helpful in roughly determining the cell type by visual inspection.


3

Looking at the paper itself, we find that they prepared the stem cells to have myogenic (muscle-specific) properties. They first injected stem cells into the irradiated (which kills muscle stem cells) muscles of immune-deficient mice. This resulted in tumor growth (teratoma - a stem cell derived tumor, where different kinds of tissues are spontaneously ...


2

The process of formation of different types of cells that differ in morphology and function is termed as cell differentiation. In multi-celled organism, each task of life is carried out by different types of specialized cells say nerve cell for transmitting impulses, muscle cells for coordinating movement and these cells differ in their appearance and ...


2

I'm not sure about the first developmental stages but, given you already have hundreds of cells with slightly different physiology, the next developmental stages like dev. of neural tube happen through excretion of translation factors and growth factors in several cells. Each of those cells that are in a region where more than one excretion overlaps get a ...


2

You have a few misconceptions about stem cells, I will try to explain where they are. First of all, cells are not independent. They influence each other with signals and secreted messenger substances. If you look at a human embryo the state of totipotency (where all cells can differentiate into each cell type of the body) ends after 3-4 days when the ...


2

A skeleton is itself very complicated. It's not just apatite in the shape of a skeleton. The bones have structure, and many have bone marrow. Tiny cells navigate through the bone matrix, keeping it sound. Those cells, and the ones in the marrow, need a blood supply to keep them alive. Plus, what swbarnes2 said.


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