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18

All cuts that go through the dermis (the full thickness of skin) will leave a scar, no matter what (and no matter what anyone tells you). The visibility of scar tissue has a lot to do with how a person heals, how much stress is put on the incision as it's healing, where the scar is, if it crosses the natural direction of skin (called Langer's lines) or goes ...


7

welcome to biology stackexchange! In the classical way we think of the body, there won't be a lot of genetic changes if the ovaries, uterus (or the testes for that matter) are removed from the body. The main effect would be that the sex hormones that are produced in these organs would no longer be present and this would have a profound effect. So the ...


6

It's true that the microbiome and microscopic structure of the neovagina are not the same as those of a natal vagina, although explicating this outside of circumstances relating to post-surgical dysfunction or pathology seems unnecessary and a potential source of discrimination. Whether post-surgical outcomes are "proper," as you put it, should be evaluated ...


4

Answer simplified to match OP level There are two different parts of biology in this question: Genetic changes, only happen when the DNA changes (in a person's genes). But in general, this is fixed before your birth (when you are conceived), and what happens in your life does not change it any more.More accurately, genetics can change, or be changed, but ...


4

As pertains to skin, no. As pertains to your other fears, that's a different question. Every cut that extends into the dermis significantly (and to remove skin, it must include the dermis) will leave a scar behind. Cuts that extend only very superficially into the dermis may hit some capillaries and bleed, but these will usually not bleed much, and can ...


3

One of the most used surgical technique is Roux en-Y where the small intestine is divided approximately 40-50 cm below the lower stomach outlet and is re-arranged into a Y-configuration. The portion of intestine (jejunum) from the upper stomach is called the "Roux limb". It has a total length of 80 - 150 cm. So the Roux en-Y technique "bypasses" only the ...


3

Abdominal surgery results in a painful wound that affects the abdominal muscles, which are important for coughing. The Lungs and respiratory tracts constantly secrete mucus that flows upwards to the Trachea then down the Oesophagus. The trachea is lined with a moist mucous-membrane layer composed of cells containing small hairlike projections called Cilia. ...


3

This depends on how deep was the initial wound, and how that wound healed. There are mainly two ways a wound could heal, either by primary intention (like in surgically closed wounds), or by secondary intention (like in wound left to scar up with the edges not closed properly). In very well closed wounds that involves all layers of skin, such as primary ...


3

As Mowgli pointed out, a bone marrow transplant involves destroying the patient's own immune system with radiation and, essentially, replacing it with a new one from the bone marrow donor. If you did a double kidney/bone marrow transplant from Alice into Bob, then Bob's new immune system (which is the same as Alice's) would recognize the new kidney from ...


2

Does CO2 cause pain? CO2 can cause pain by applying pressure on the diaphragm; also stretching of the diaphragm due to the body position can irritate the phrenic nerve (Indian Journal of Surgery). ALSO: It was once believed the resultant shoulder pain was simply due to reaction of the gas combining with water; or that it was merely trapped CO2. The ...


2

Bone marrow transplant requires to first destroy the pre-existing immune system with chemotherapy and/or radiations. So essentially you would not have the first immune system and my guess is that yes, in theory, it would work. However, double-grafting an artificially immunocompromised patient (who clearly suffers from another severe pathology, if they need ...


2

Pneumonia after abdominal surgery can develop due to: Decreased breathing movements when lying in the bed Anesthetics/sedation use that decrease the sensation of irritation in the lungs and hence coughing out mucus Pain preventing coughing Eventual mechanical ventilation, especially when the organism is not immune to hospital-acquired (nosocomial) ...


2

They don't always cut through the breast. The armpit is a common alternative to slicing the breast tissue. In these cases, there is absolutely no scarring on the breast of any kind.


2

1. Gallbladder attachement to the liver In this video (check from 55 sec on), you can see that the gallbladder is covered by a thin sheath that wraps the gallbladder; the sheath extends to the liver and intestine and thus keeps the gallbladder in place. The sheath is a part of the abdominal membrane (peritoneum) that covers most of the abdominal organs. You ...


2

As you mention, hypothermia is routinely induced during cardiac surgery. There is a blog post including a photo of a heart being cooled with ice chips here: https://www.heart-valve-surgery.com/heart-surgery-blog/2010/10/17/ice-cardioplegia-open-heart-surgery/ The primary therapeutic benefit of deliberate hypothermia was long thought to be, as you say, the ...


2

You want to somehow damage the cavernous nerves of the penis. If you damage the preganglionic root of the cavernous nerves (the pelvic splanchnic nerve), you'll create all kinds of other problems. You might also consider using a chemical agent instead of surgery; this will allow for increased discretion and ease of administration. I discuss this after the ...


2

Could a viable organ be partially grown in a test tube then be hooked up to the host in some way until it is large enough to swap it with the bad organ? Yes. This conceptual possibility already is a reality for one organ, namely the skin. For an example see the following story in a good scientific journal: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/11/boy-rare-...


1

I think this is a fantastic question. As far as the Parkinson's application, it's definitely within the realm of possible. Taken form a recent review: Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several ...


1

Regarding your first question, the effect size is not invalid if the confidence interval (CI) crosses 0. The effect size is a point estimate. When the CI -a range estimate of the coverage probability- includes 0, the probability that the range of the effect size can include 0 cannot be rejected at the $1-\alpha$ level of confidence. Regarding your second ...


1

There are two possible ways to perform refractive operation: first, to perform the procedure on the cornea, the second - to exchange the crystalline lens with the artificial one. The second approach is extremely rare, because the lens (1) is inside the eye and (2) it allows us to accommodate (=change the focus of vision). Thus, this method is relevant ...


1

Some physical methods of sterilisation are in hospitals Steam autoclaving Dry heat – thermostat White light / UV light sterilization where continuous UV light has poor penetration. UV radiation heat is absorbed by proteins and nucleic acid. All micro-organisms contain tehm. They inactivate the DNA. There will be electronic and photochemical reactions ...


1

Check out the sources of Wikipedia article: the mortality rate is up to 4%. The main causes of "immediate" death in penetrating trauma are shock (low blood pressure due to external/internal hemorrhage, especially arterial hemorrhage), pneumothorax, penetrating heart injury (with resultant hemopericardium) and other less frequent causes. The same causes ...


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