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23

Your best bet is the Terminologia Anatomica, which is the international standard for anatomical terminology. The 1998 edition is freely available. It lists only a few named tendons though, which is consistent with my experience as an anatomist: very few tendons are named separately from the muscles to which they are connected. Central tendon of the ...


13

The FMA lists 705 tendons, but note that it includes separate terms for left and right instances. As @kmm says, many of these simply shadow the list of skeletal muscles (and is likely incomplete). You can browse the list on OLS, or if you want to extract a table you can query this SPARQL endpoint, just type in the query here: SELECT DISTINCT ?x ?v0 WHERE { ...


11

As you correctly say, tendons are made up of collagen fibers. Collagen is one of the most important proteins (or, to be more specific, family of proteins, as there are many types of collagen) forming connective tissue in the body. Collagen molecules have a particular structure that allows them to form long fibers, composed by three different strands that ...


9

They get used somewhat interchangeably, which blurs the lines on the definitions. When I had my anatomy classes, sinews were regarded as an inclusive class, which included both ligaments and tendons. For the breakdown: Tendon: Fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. Ligament: Fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone. Sinew: Includes both of the ...


4

Limb lengthening surgery is usually used to treat sequelae caused by bone disease, trauma, pygmyism or inflammation. I personally do not recommend to use surgical methods to increase height. Typically Limb Lengthening requires Achilles pre-lengthening surgery and a lot of postoperative rehabilitation. Moreover, Limb lengthening surgery may cause pain, ...


4

In doing search into muscle stem cells, I found some articles which discuss roles of satellite stem cells and non satellite cells involved in muscle regeneration: (Yin, Price and Rudnicki, 2013,Seale and Rudnicki, 2000, and Mitchell et al, 2010). Other articles, that I found discussed the splicing of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) into the satellite ...


4

A tendon usually connects a muscle to a bone, but not always. According to InnerBody, the diaphragm muscle originates at the lumbar vertebra, lower ribs and sternum and inserts to the central tendon. The central tendon — a flat aponeurosis made of dense collagen fibers — acts as the tough insertion point of the muscles. So, the central tendon acts as ...


3

Tendons are intrinsically part of muscles. Ligaments are not. So for your question, we need to create a classification system which is a bit artificial, based on the tissue structure of the various components of the musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system is made up of hard and soft tissues. The hard tissue includes bones and cartilages (...


3

I couldn't find studies analysing clearly enough tendons size, but a couple of sources show that they are probably correlated: One study found correlation between dimensions of Achilles'tendon and other ankle tendons (see table 2). Another study found correlation between height and dimensions of some tendons (see table 2). Anyway, since correlation is not ...


3

Not that I'm aware of. There isn't any blood flow to either tendons or cartilage as an adult, so the pathway for migration doesn't exist. Tendons and cartilage are tissues composed of dead cells after their formation (the cartilage growth plates cease to exist in your teen and completely ossify, tendons I'm not sure on). Damage to tendons and cartilage is ...


3

Taken from The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Metalloelastase (MMP-12) is (as the name suggests) capable of degrading elastin, as well as other extra-cellular matrix components. It is produced predominantly by infiltrating macrophages and appears essential for macrophage ...


2

Tension is not a quantifiable thing, rather an abstract concept to describe feelings of stress in muscles. I think I see what you are getting at but I would separate it into two questions. "Is massage provably beneficial to muscles under physically induced stress?" Emphatically yes, however there are so many different types of massage, some are more ...


2

If you observe the general structure of the locomotor system, you will be able to roughly separate muscles in two main groups: the muscles used for static work and position maintenance. those exclusively used for manipulation of the external world. You will also notice that most muscles with extensive tendinous attachments reside on the axial skeleton (i.e ...


2

I would suggest you contact your doctor if you are suffering from tendinitis. NSAIDs are often used as part of treament for tendinitis, but like all medications they can have side effects. Therefore again if you have concerns about taking NSAIDs contact your doctor. As for the mechinism of action of NSAIDs they don't constrict vessels but instead reduce ...


2

It seems that just a Russian researcher named Dr Alexander Teplyashin has made any progress into using stem cells for LL (Limb lengthening). Conventional way to go about it would always be surgeries which are detailed in Wikipedia (reference). This is a relatively new development, so I could not find any relative publications to support the claim of this ...


2

Some ontologies such as the FMA and Uberon draw a distinction between the skeleton and the skeletal system, with the former consisting only of bones/cartilage, and the latter including ligaments and joints. A broader concept musculoskeletal system includes muscles/tendons with skeletal system elements. This link shows the uberon concept of 'skeletal ...


2

The article you linked is interesting, but as @Charles E. Grant mentioned in the comments, it’s not particularly reasonable to compare a non-tear repetitive stress injury (like epicondylitis) to a full muscle tear. Non-tear repetitive stress injuries persist because the offending frequent motion doesn’t stop. A muscle tear, however, will recruit an ...


2

You’re correct that the gluteus minimus is redundant in function with the gluteus medius, but an isolated gluteus minimus tear still causes functional problems because of the associated inflammatory response and subsequent pain deemed “greater trochanteric pain syndrome,” as the greater trochanter is the insertion site for hip abductor muscles like the ...


2

I suspect that you are correct, "subpatellar tendon" is referring to the patellar ligament. Although it is small, in the image below, (3) is the tibial tuberosity and (5) is the patella. (4) which is labeled "subpatellar tendon" is between the two. The only structure between them is the patellar ligament. So, I think this is what it meant (though in 20 years ...


1

The tendon and muscle attachment are not the same. In your example, both are affected, so they are described separately. A muscle extends into a tendon and this into an enthesis - an actual attachment site where the muscle is attached to the bone (PubMed).


1

{1} greatly answers the question. Regarding the insertion location (lateral view): Note that unlike the gluteus minimus insertion, the gluteus medius insertion can also be viewed anterolaterally: Table 2 contains more detailed insertion location data: Regarding the insertion area: Gluteus maximus: Average Area, mm^2 (95% CI): 473.4 (381.0, 565.8). ...


1

From {1}: Abstract PURPOSE: There is little information in the literature describing the anatomy of the biceps tendon insertion. The purpose of this study was to map the footprint of the biceps tendon insertion on the bicipital tuberosity and to report on the relevant anatomy to assist surgeons with correct tendon orientation during surgical repair. ...


1

{4} has a similar micrograph as yours but with some labels: with the caption: Figure 1.2: Tendon microstructure of healthy tendons: nuclei of tenocytes are darker in color and vascularization does not disrupt collagen arrays. arrays http://www.onlineveterinaryanatomy.net/content/tendon-histology-labelled (mirror) {5} presents both a longitudinal (a) ...


1

As far as I know there is no clear scientific evidence on whether and at which stage of a tendon injury one should use NSAID. Here is the conclusion of a systematic review from Cochrane {1}: There remains limited evidence from which to draw firm conclusions about the benefits or harms of topical or oral NSAIDs in treating lateral elbow pain. Although data ...


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