35

There are multiple biological mechanisms that can be brought to bear for distinguishing between atoms. In addition to binding properties (e.g., ionic charge, electronegativity, bond strength), there is also the size of the atoms and even their vibrational properties. For one of these mechanisms to actually be used, however, it needs to be evolutionarily ...


24

The cytoplasm is like the ocean. When you talk about the ocean, do you include the fish? What about islands? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. You could use a cytosol/cytoplasm distinction, where cytosol is "just the liquid part outside the organelles" and cytoplasm includes all the fish, but context matters and I don't think it's actually necessary to ...


18

The young scientist asks: “What is the correct definition?”. The old scientist answers: “As is often the case in biology, there is no correct definition — different people adopt different usages.” This answer attempts to explain why this is the case and how to find out other than asking people who despite greater age and knowledge, may be mistaken in ...


11

I have found what may be the holy grail. It is a book known as "A Botanical Materia Medica" by Jonathan Stokes. This has several volumes, but the one you want is volume 1, which has no appended "volume X" in the title. A list of abbreviations can be found on page XIII (or 13 for those not familiar with Latin numerals), just after the ...


10

Your confusion is warranted! The formatting rules for gene and protein nomenclature differ between model organisms. Even within a species, naming conventions may be inconsistently applied across the literature. In Homo sapiens, the sonic hedgehog gene SHH (note italicization) encodes the sonic hedgehog protein SHH (or Shh protein, as on Uniprot). Human gene ...


9

The "H" and "O" identifiers first appeared in German-language publications around 1920 to describe different forms of disease-causing bacilli. Thankfully, Arkwright and Goyle provide an English explanation of the terms in their 1924 review.1 These writers called the two forms, which they described, the "H" and the "O" ...


8

I regard this is more of a question for SE English Language and Usage under the tag “technical”, and will vote to move it there. However, as the answer relates to reading papers in molecular biology, I provide an answer here. Linguistic interpretation without context The tense used in the phrase “X remains poorly understood”, taken in isolation, suggests ...


7

"Cheek" isn't really a biology specific word with a specific definition within the field, it's more of an everyday expression. Vis-a-vis Grey's Anatomy 3rd Edition doesn't even use the word at all. In fish, for example it's mainly defined as the space between important features which have a defined function (eye and front edge of operculum). Even ...


5

I have read that the general definition for puncta is a small, distinct point. That's correct. From my understanding, puncta are dots. However, I was wondering whether puncta is a synonym for clusters of a protein In the context of fluorescence microscopy, a punctum (plural puncta) does not specifically refer to the aggregation of proteins. Any small, ...


4

Though David's answer is technically correct, I offer an alternative for those who struggle with the term in broader contexts. Definition Canonical simply means relating to a historically established paradigm, or relating to a common or standard model (which simplifies things!). For example, a biochemical pathway or a mechanism, for example, may be ...


4

Short Answer The word canonical in this context implies that nerve growth factor is the original, standard or prototype of some sort (in relation to a class of biological agents). Without knowing details of growth factors I found the sentence slightly ambiguous. As I suspected, it means that NGF is either the original growth factor or the original ...


4

Harbouring, using harbour as a verb and in this meaning containing/hiding (see 3rd and 4th definitions at Harbour) Cryptic = hidden/difficult to find - this is how the word is often used in biology, particularly zoology.


4

The short answer to this question is NO. To understand the reason one needs to appreciate certain things about proteins and about research into them. A primary objective in research into proteins is to understand how their structures determine how they work, not to classify them by function. Of course, assigning similar proteins to groups and using phrases ...


4

We use them as synonyms. However, variant is, in my view, more colloquial than scientific. Strains are in the literature often defined by their distinct genome compared to other strains of the same species (might be one base-pair substitution or more). In microbiology, including viruses, we often think of a strain as the proliferation of a single distinct ...


4

There's a reason why you encounter these words so frequently - they are widely understood, concise descriptions that almost any biologist will understand immediately. Almost any other terms you use in their place will only serve to obfuscate the actual biological phenomenon you're talking about. That said, I've seen the words overexpressed and underexpressed ...


3

Practically, 99% of the time there is no difference when using one term or another. More strictly: A phototroph ("a thing nourished by light") is according to your wiki page: It is a common misconception that phototrophs are obligatorily photosynthetic. Many, but not all, phototrophs often photosynthesize: they anabolically convert carbon dioxide ...


3

Why revive a four-year old question? Although I do not consider nomenclature of this type terribly important, and the high-scoring answer from @VonBeche is reasonable, I decided to add my own ‘answer’ for several reasons. First this is a highly active question, probably because students are required to make this sort of distinction, second because there have ...


3

Based on this line from the paper you linked, it seems like they are using intracellular retention to refer to proto-cadherins being taken up in to the cell via endocytosis. It is possible that the effects of deleting the intracellular domain might be a result of loss of an organelle retention signal located in the cytoplasmic domain of the protein and/or a ...


3

The term appears to be in use as a synonym. PLOS ONE is a good journal, and in it Okubo, 2016 write "The protocol for ISHH was described in detail previously [22]." Where [22] is Yamanaka, 2007, describing a classic ISH protocol. Note that both papers use good old fashioned nuclear tract emulsion for S-35 labelled probes. The ISHH protocol is in ...


3

I think that "morph" is a substantially generic term that it would cover environmental as well as genetic variation. A cursory google search suggests that this is common practice in zoology: a paper on lizards, one on ants, another on ants. This paper discusses the phenomenon in general using the term "polyphenism", in the context of ...


2

In papers I've participated in recently we've called it TNFα. No reviewer has corrected us as far as I can recall. Near as I can tell, we've done this because we do not read the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee database any more often than we read the dictionary cover-to-cover. Instead, we read and cite papers in the literature, and since many of those are ...


2

It's a slightly tough question that can't be answered with a simple "they share X characteristic in common". It's more that some of them share a characteristic, and some of those share a characteristic with another load of species within the same sub-clade, and some of the characteristics they have are shared with some more... etc. The American ...


2

There is no such ligamentous or connective tissue structure as depicted in the linked image. This is a visual artifact created by the border of the vastus medialis or just a fanciful artistic interpretation. Based on 25 years of teaching human anatomy, I suspect the latter, because the artist's image shows this band much more proximal than the distal extent ...


2

Ok I might have found a database which lists some abbreviations, it's on Tropicos : https://www.tropicos.org/publication/Search But it seems quite limitated in the search possibities, for instance : looking for "Hort. ups." does not find the "Decas plantarum rariorum horti upsaliensis" which is abbreviated in this database as "Dec. ...


2

It's going to depend on what definition is useful in what context. If was was talking about an mRNA being translated in the cytoplasm, I am saying it is absolutely not translated in the ER or the golgi apparatus. (Most proteins translated in those places are on their way to being transported somewhere else; they will not end up free-floating in the cytosol ...


2

Short answer To provide accessible conferences for the hearing impaired, automated artificial intelligence (AI) based captioning services are a good and affordable substitute to live captioners these days. Background I took the liberty to outsource this question to a giant in the field I work in (Auditory Neuroscience and specifically auditory prosthetics) ...


1

Apparently it is called Count FlexiPlate, although this might be a brand name of a product produced by HiTouch (just as Aspirine can be only the acetylsalicylic acid produced by Bayer), see here. Note also that it is a modified version of Petri dish, so the latter name may apply as well.


1

The distinction made by @bob1 makes perfect sense: Effective selection applies to the situation where selection may or may not work: e.g., in a small population subject to the random drift, the selection may be ineffective in the sense that deleterious alleles may fix with nearly the same probability as beneficial ones, the outcome thus nearly independent ...


1

You have a word problem here, not really biology. Efficacy means "power to produce the desired result/effect" Effective means "producing the desired result", stressing the ability to produce that result Efficiency means "degree of being efficient" Efficient in turn means "ability to produce desired result with little waste&...


1

Short answer "Oxygen homeostasis" is the best I can think of. Longer answer Don't forget the other half of the oxygen equation: carbon dioxide is an important waste gas and failing to remove carbon dioxide is just as much a problem as failing to deliver enough oxygen. You could refer to "oxygen homeostasis" if you wanted to just refer to ...


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