35

There are multiple biological mechanisms that can be brought to bear for distinguishing between atoms. In addition to binding properties (e.g., ionic charge, electronegativity, bond strength), there is also the size of the atoms and even their vibrational properties. For one of these mechanisms to actually be used, however, it needs to be evolutionarily ...


24

The cytoplasm is like the ocean. When you talk about the ocean, do you include the fish? What about islands? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. You could use a cytosol/cytoplasm distinction, where cytosol is "just the liquid part outside the organelles" and cytoplasm includes all the fish, but context matters and I don't think it's actually necessary to ...


18

The young scientist asks: “What is the correct definition?”. The old scientist answers: “As is often the case in biology, there is no correct definition — different people adopt different usages.” This answer attempts to explain why this is the case and how to find out other than asking people who despite greater age and knowledge, may be mistaken in ...


10

Your confusion is warranted! The formatting rules for gene and protein nomenclature differ between model organisms. Even within a species, naming conventions may be inconsistently applied across the literature. In Homo sapiens, the sonic hedgehog gene SHH (note italicization) encodes the sonic hedgehog protein SHH (or Shh protein, as on Uniprot). Human gene ...


10

I have found what may be the holy grail. It is a book known as "A Botanical Materia Medica" by Jonathan Stokes. This has several volumes, but the one you want is volume 1, which has no appended "volume X" in the title. A list of abbreviations can be found on page XIII (or 13 for those not familiar with Latin numerals), just after the ...


8

I regard this is more of a question for SE English Language and Usage under the tag “technical”, and will vote to move it there. However, as the answer relates to reading papers in molecular biology, I provide an answer here. Linguistic interpretation without context The tense used in the phrase “X remains poorly understood”, taken in isolation, suggests ...


7

"Cheek" isn't really a biology specific word with a specific definition within the field, it's more of an everyday expression. Vis-a-vis Grey's Anatomy 3rd Edition doesn't even use the word at all. In fish, for example it's mainly defined as the space between important features which have a defined function (eye and front edge of operculum). Even ...


5

I have read that the general definition for puncta is a small, distinct point. That's correct. From my understanding, puncta are dots. However, I was wondering whether puncta is a synonym for clusters of a protein In the context of fluorescence microscopy, a punctum (plural puncta) does not specifically refer to the aggregation of proteins. Any small, ...


4

Short Answer There is no such word that I can think of. Long Answer Note: although fungi were once considered to be lumped with plants, such classifications fell out of favor 60+ years ago (or sooner). See here for a summary. Nomenclature "dead ends" Using the traditional taxonomic approach (including Woese's familiar 3-domain classification ...


4

There's a reason why you encounter these words so frequently - they are widely understood, concise descriptions that almost any biologist will understand immediately. Almost any other terms you use in their place will only serve to obfuscate the actual biological phenomenon you're talking about. That said, I've seen the words overexpressed and underexpressed ...


4

The short answer to this question is NO. To understand the reason one needs to appreciate certain things about proteins and about research into them. A primary objective in research into proteins is to understand how their structures determine how they work, not to classify them by function. Of course, assigning similar proteins to groups and using phrases ...


3

I think that "morph" is a substantially generic term that it would cover environmental as well as genetic variation. A cursory google search suggests that this is common practice in zoology: a paper on lizards, one on ants, another on ants. This paper discusses the phenomenon in general using the term "polyphenism", in the context of ...


3

Why revive a four-year old question? Although I do not consider nomenclature of this type terribly important, and the high-scoring answer from @VonBeche is reasonable, I decided to add my own ‘answer’ for several reasons. First this is a highly active question, probably because students are required to make this sort of distinction, second because there have ...


3

I think I found an answer at Science Direct where multiple definitions are provided, among one from Thomson (2012): Solubilization is the action of certain chemical reagents on organic materials (such as animal or plant tissue) that effects a structural breakdown (or digestion) into a liquid form that can then be directly dissolved [...] and from Lau (2011)...


3

It seems to me that "genic" is a perfectly good word. This paper uses "genic" directly as a contrast to "intergenic", so that seems like a reasonable precedent: ‘Noncoding DNA’ can be found both surrounding genes, and within genes (see schematic Figure 1). We will call the first type ‘intergenic’, and the second type ‘genic’, a ...


3

While @mgkrebbs is correct in their answer that the meaning of "stripped" cannot be 100% determined without corresponding with the author, there are clues that point to a most likely answer. The previous sentence, "FA in serum samples was removed as previously described", cites this reference, which describes testing of different ...


3

I believe this is a failure of editing, and the meaning in this paper of "stripped" cannot be determined without correspondence with an author. "Stripped" is an informal term for either removal of some substance or treatment with a material such as charcoal which affects many substances. Normally in papers "stripped" is ...


3

The lipoprotein has a 36 amino acid sequence that is the same (matches) as part of a protein from SARS-Cov-2. The newspaper article refers to this paper below. "Intranasal fusion inhibitory lipopeptide prevents direct contact SARS- CoV-2 transmission in ferrets" Rory D. de Vries1@, Katharina S. Schmitz1@, Francesca T. Bovier#2,3,4@, Danny Noack1, ...


3

Yes, stretch means sequence in this context. See definition #5 for stretch (noun) on Wiktionary: A segment or length of material. So, the "stretch of amino acids" in the article refers to the peptide sequence portion of the lipopeptide prophylactic.


3

Based on this line from the paper you linked, it seems like they are using intracellular retention to refer to proto-cadherins being taken up in to the cell via endocytosis. It is possible that the effects of deleting the intracellular domain might be a result of loss of an organelle retention signal located in the cytoplasmic domain of the protein and/or a ...


3

The term appears to be in use as a synonym. PLOS ONE is a good journal, and in it Okubo, 2016 write "The protocol for ISHH was described in detail previously [22]." Where [22] is Yamanaka, 2007, describing a classic ISH protocol. Note that both papers use good old fashioned nuclear tract emulsion for S-35 labelled probes. The ISHH protocol is in ...


3

We use them as synonyms. However, variant is, in my view, more colloquial than scientific. Strains are in the literature often defined by their distinct genome compared to other strains of the same species (might be one base-pair substitution or more). In microbiology, including viruses, we often think of a strain as the proliferation of a single distinct ...


3

Practically, 99% of the time there is no difference when using one term or another. More strictly: A phototroph ("a thing nourished by light") is according to your wiki page: It is a common misconception that phototrophs are obligatorily photosynthetic. Many, but not all, phototrophs often photosynthesize: they anabolically convert carbon dioxide ...


2

Looking at the article, I think they could leave out the word "targeted". I think they used it because what is being enriched is not a promoter DNA, but the section of promoter DNA bound to the protein and antibody. I suppose they could use "...enriched 4.1-fold more FOLR1 Promoter DNA-CIC protein complex,..." It is a little awkward or ...


2

The word "muscle" is applied to both the organ and to the tissue. There are 3 types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Below is a decent quote from SEER explaining this (my emphasis added): A whole skeletal muscle is considered an organ of the muscular system. Each organ or muscle consists of skeletal muscle tissue, connective ...


2

It's going to depend on what definition is useful in what context. If was was talking about an mRNA being translated in the cytoplasm, I am saying it is absolutely not translated in the ER or the golgi apparatus. (Most proteins translated in those places are on their way to being transported somewhere else; they will not end up free-floating in the cytosol ...


1

Apparently it is called Count FlexiPlate, although this might be a brand name of a product produced by HiTouch (just as Aspirine can be only the acetylsalicylic acid produced by Bayer), see here. Note also that it is a modified version of Petri dish, so the latter name may apply as well.


1

Short answer "Oxygen homeostasis" is the best I can think of. Longer answer Don't forget the other half of the oxygen equation: carbon dioxide is an important waste gas and failing to remove carbon dioxide is just as much a problem as failing to deliver enough oxygen. You could refer to "oxygen homeostasis" if you wanted to just refer to ...


1

I think that it boils down to taking a Latin name and removing the case ending to get an acceptable English adjective. Given that it might be a purely linguistic situation, it's possible another SE site would be better (English language?), but this topic is definitely relevant to biologists, as they're probably the ones who run into it most frequently. We ...


1

Allele, allelomorphs - the common word in both is "Allele" - When Multiple genes code for a contrasting or similar traits/ or multiple genes in the same locus on homologous chromosomes can be qualified as an allele. Now let's look at second word "Morph" - Adjective MORPHOLOGICAL meaning that - relating to the form or structure of things. ...


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