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Supinus and pronus are latin words which mean lying face/body/palm downw and lying face/body/palm up. The hand clearly has a front and a back, and everyone knows where the back of the hand is compared to the front. It's a very clear medical word for describing the hand. Supinator and pronator muscles are also clear groups that action the hand to a prone/...


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Pronation and supination involve a change in relationship between the ulna and radius. When you rotate your hand from palm ventrally (as in anatomical position) to palm facing dorsally you have moved your hand from a supinated position to a pronated one. This movement of supination to pronation occurs when the distal head of the radius rotates on ...


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This will vary from discipline to discipline. In paleontology valid species means a population that can be show to be morphologically distinctive in a way that cannot be better explained as sexual dimorphism or a growth distribution. In a living species it may rely on genetic (breeding) isolation. Basically a "valid" species is meant to show it as distinct ...


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"Valid" in this case is just emphasizing that the Heterotermes perfidus on this island are a different (real) species, and not just a variation of their closest relatives. You need not get bogged down with how we determine species, or define species. It just means that this taxon (named group) exists as a separate species: a "valid" species, based on ...


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Unfortunately, there is no such term. I at least compiled the relevant vocabulary homoeolog/homeolog - homologous chromosomal sets in an organism diverged in isolated populations/subspecies and broght back by a hybridization event; note that the two spellings with exactly the same meaning are possible ohnolog - homologous chromosomal sets originated from a ...


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