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12

How can a non-mutagenic agent be carcinogenic? An agent that causes overexpression of oncogenes or inhibition of tumor supressors, would be carcinogenic but not mutagenic. HPV, for instance, produces proteins that cause inactivation and degradation of tumor suppressors, p53 and pRb[1]. Regarding alcohol. As you guessed, alcohol is metabolized to form ...


13

Alcohol itself is non-mutagenic because it does not directly alter DNA. (Additionally ethanol enhances carcinogenesis and is itself not a carcinogen - updated) There are similar non-mutagenic carcinogens such as estrogen - which is a carcinogen. Another important thing to realize is that a non-mutagenic carcinogen may not alter DNA, but instead alter ...


5

This is just a reference to the feeding groove - a morphological feature that groups these organisms. The presence of the term in quotes as "excavated" is an indication that the word is not meant to be taken literally. Quotation marks used like this are referred to as scare quotes - they are meant to alert the reader that the phrase in quotes is not to be ...


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