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2nd law of thermodynamics states that the overall entropy of the universe cannot decrease at any time. This can also be stated as the fact that the universe naturally falls towards the lowest energy state, or equilibrium. This becomes important in metabolic reactions. Reactions which seem to increase the state of energy, or perhaps the 'order' of the ...


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The equilibrium constant $K$ is the quotient of the rate constants of forward ($k_1$) and backward reactions ($k_{-1}$) (for elementary reactions). E.g., for an equilibrium $$\ce{A + B <=> C + D}$$ we get $$\frac{[C][D]}{[A][B]} = K = \frac{k_1}{k_{-1}}$$ So, If both rate constants are affected in the same way (multiplied by the same speed-up ...


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I will focus on the meaning of ‘activated carrier molecule’ as descriptions of enzymes abound. In order to do that I need to introduce two other ideas first. I apologize to the purists for tailoring this to the level of the question. 1. Gibbs Free Energy in Biochemical Considerations There are different ways of considering energy, and in chemistry one may be ...


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It's unclear how the laws of thermodynamics relate to the dangers of UV light in your question, but if I understand correctly your reasoning is the following: 1) The laws of thermodynamics say that order cannot increase in an isolated system, precluding life. 2) Life exists anyway because the Earth is not an isolated system: it receives energy from the Sun ...


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As tax money is no longer available for you payments, entropy is the tax of nature in that it is the energy taken (leaked) from your system, be it supplied or produced, that is no longer available for work. You have to pay the tax (entropy) for every activity involving energy (money) other wise your activity will not be possible. If your activity involves ...


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In addition to what is already said, I want to mention something more subtle. What other people have commented here is about an old 'dogma' due to Christian Anfinsen, which postulates that all that matters is the sequence of aminoacids + the microenvironment (pH, temperature, etc). However, I think you might be confounding two other layers of biochemical ...


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I suspect the author meant something a little different. It's not just that it doesn't matter if a protein is synthesized from N- or C-terminus it's also not important for the end result of folding that the synthesis is gradual at all. When designing proteins de novo they model the folding on a computer. The gradual addition of amino acid residues to the ...


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