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I will focus on the meaning of ‘activated carrier molecule’ as descriptions of enzymes abound. In order to do that I need to introduce two other ideas first. I apologize to the purists for tailoring this to the level of the question. 1. Gibbs Free Energy in Biochemical Considerations There are different ways of considering energy, and in chemistry one may be ...


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It's unclear how the laws of thermodynamics relate to the dangers of UV light in your question, but if I understand correctly your reasoning is the following: 1) The laws of thermodynamics say that order cannot increase in an isolated system, precluding life. 2) Life exists anyway because the Earth is not an isolated system: it receives energy from the Sun ...


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But I can't find it in textbooks and also I can't imagine if such coupling makes sense. In many textbooks it is stated that the energy that released due to the hydrolysis fo ATP is used to drive the pumping I've been reading Molecular Cell Biology of Lodish and it has used "coupling" of hydrolysis of ATP with other reactions a lot, ergo it is ...


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