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Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. There is debate about how to best describe the problem, but narrowly defined, overdiagnosis occurs when increasingly sensitive tests - or changing definitions - identify abnormalities that are minor, non-progressive, or likely to resolve on their own, and that, if left untreated, will not cause symptoms or ...


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Short answer: different people have different amount of active receptors. In treatment, combination scores of Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics determine the final effect of the drug. Receptors determine many effects of the drug in many pathways. Different people also sense pains differently (Psychology). Review answer The purpose of treatment is ...


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This is indeed a reputable strategy (#1,2,4) for rapid response to novel pathogens. See https://phys.org/news/2020-01-scientists-decoy-molecule-neutralizes-arenaviruses.html and the open access article it cites https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13924-6 In the case of coronavirus, however, there is an issue (your #3) in that ACE2 is an enzyme that ...


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Human Embyronic Stem Cells (hESC) can be programmed to differentiate into a number of different types of tissue depending on the signals you give or withhold. Source: BioTime The company Viacyte is actually developing a technology based on hESC that can be used to rescue loss of function in type-1 diabetes, just as an example. Their process takes hESC to ...


2

Screening is the process of testing the population enmasse to check for the presence of risk factors for a disease or to detect the early form of a disease. Usually the tests that are used in screening are not highly effective in excluding people who do not have the disease (low negative predictive value). Instead the goal of screening is to identify as ...


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I don't know of any interesting mechanism that is specific to pain killers, so I will instead answer for drugs in general. Drug action is a complex process consisting of many steps. Let's take a simple example: A systemic direct inhibitor of a kinase. This drug would need to*: Be absorbed into your bloodstream Remain in your bloodstream for sufficient time ...


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Doctors sometimes use "open-label placebos" - substances that have no known physiological effect on the treated disease, but have been associated with symptoms improvement in some studies. Open-label means doctors openly tell people it's placebo. The example is treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Doctors use not only fake drugs, but also real drugs as ...


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This is a good question. The first answer is that there are antibody therapeutics for cancer. These fall into two categories which I will call therapeutic and immunotherapy (this is not typical naming but, keeping it simple they will do). Therapeutic antibodies are designed to bind to an enzyme or signalling protein that will weaken the tumor specifically. ...


1

I know nothing about this subject, except that I can recognize edible and poisonous fungi, to the extent that it concerns me in a practical sense. However, as I have access to a range of journals through my university I thought I would see if there was anything ‘out there’ on the topic. A recent paper entitled Amanita phalloides poisoning: Mechanisms of ...


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Assuming you meant "Angiogenesis" instead of "Antiogenesis"... From wikipedia > angiogenesis inhibitor Angiogenesis inhibitors were once thought to have potential as a "silver bullet" treatment applicable to many types of cancer, but the limitations of anti-angiogenic therapy have been shown in practice.2 Nonetheless, ...


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Interestingly, treatment of mild pharyngitis before the advent of antibiotics wasn't too different from what it is today - it was (and still is) mostly symptomatic. First of all, viral pharyngitis, which is quite common (Hidreth et al., 2015), is not affected by antibiotics (no viral infection is), and they are not indicated in such situations. Second, mild ...


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Consider how a Retrovirus can modify existing cell DNA to 'execute instructions' on its behalf. Not only retroviruses do that. Actually, pretty much all viruses use the machinery of the host cell on its behalf. Why can we not utilize lab-generated viruses to infect sick patients with a 'healthy' virus that would rewrite bad segments of DNA with something ...


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A) There isn't really a fixed hierarchy that is applicable across the board - alterations are often binned into actionable targets and non-actionable ones. In terms of customised cancer vaccine for immunotherapy (Eg - www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/04/personalized-tumor-vaccines-keep-cancer-check ) , more antigenic mutations tend to be prioritised. B) ...


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Alum has been shown to be effective in treating aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) and it is believed to be due to the compound's significant drying effect. Alum is known as an astringent - a chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues. More information on alum's astringent properties are reported in this paper. As the infected tissue ...


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I've had a difficult time getting anything definitive to support my answer to your specific question of safety, however, I thought I'd go out on a limb and give you my understanding. A recent review of what is known about this can be found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2809506/ I think you are on the right track with your 'dose-dependence' ...


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If I may add to what Resonating has said, when it comes to infections, dry cough is usually associated with a viral infection, whereas wet cough is usually caused by bacteria. The two are treated very differently - dry cough is remedied with cough-supressing drugs (antivirals are rarely needed), whereas bacterial infections are medicated with antibiotics (...


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The processes of apoptosis is not so simple, there is a lot of genes and proteins that participate in it. In cancer cells some of them mutate and not working properly. Lack of apoptosis is the main problem in cancer. If cell not working properly, it dies. But not in cancer. So theoretically, yes. If we will fix the apoptosis, the cell probably will die. It'...


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In some cases yes — when there is a mutation in apoptotic regulators such as Bcl2 family of proteins. In other cases it is difficult to identify and only identification is that those cells are growing rapidly; in other words failure to undergo apoptosis is not the cause but the effect of the cancerous transformation (as in case of p53, Ras, Myc mutations etc)...


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