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The genetic code and the effect of point mutations on proteins

Nonambiguity refers to the fact that codon X will always code for the same amino acid. Degeneracy refers to the fact that an amino acid can be coded for by many codons. I rephrase the question to ...
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Are mitochondrial genes decoded in the same way as nuclear genes?

Answer Summary Translation in the mitochondria of mammals differs markedly from that in the cytoplasm. Although it has more similarity to translation in prokaryotes, it also shows significant ...
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3 votes
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What is the proper naming of Aminoacyl-tRNAs?

Minimal Answer If all you want to do is exactly what you have specified, on the basis of a 2013 paper on the human tRNAs identified in the 1000 genes project, the format would seem to be: Met-tRNAMet(...
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2 votes
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Why is the genetic code so heavily conserved?

There are a variety of posts on this site already that address related questions: History of ideas about the form of the genetic code Why 20 amino acids instead of 64? Is there recent info about the ...
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Relationship between the ambiguity (wobble) at codon position 3 in elongation and codon position 1 in initiation

Summary The difference in the nature of codon–anticodon ambiguity seen between bacterial initiation and elongation lies not only in the position of the codon at which it occurs (5′ v 3′, respectively)...
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2 votes
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"mutant" codon translations?

While the basis of the genetic code are highly conserved there are several variations that can actually be quite frequent. For example the mitochondria in your body use an encoding that is a little ...
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Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and the degeneracy of the genetic code

This topic is dealt with in most biochemical and molecular biological texts — there is a useful summary in Alberts et al.. However it may be useful to clarify this point as this is a fundamental ...
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2 votes

What prevents non-aminoacylated tRNA from binding to mRNA on the ribosome and disrupting protein synthesis?

Short answer The codon-directed non-enzymic binding of tRNA (aminoacylated or not) to the A-site of the ribosome is much weaker than the (normal) binding of aminoacyl-tRNA complexed to EF-Tu/EF-1, the ...
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1 vote

What prevents non-aminoacylated tRNA from binding to mRNA on the ribosome and disrupting protein synthesis?

In some bacteria, uncharged tRNAs have been shown to bind to the ribosome. In fact, that binding is responsible for the "stringent response" a mechanism that signals that the cell is running ...
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1 vote

How does a ribosome gather tRNAs at a fast enough rate for Translation?

The answer is simply due to the random walk of the amino acids. Over small volumes, this process is incredibly quick and is also responsible for nucleotide delivery to polymerases as well proteins ...
1 vote

Do tRNAs that recognize multiple codons have any preference for one over another?

There is an extensive literature on synonymous codons and their usage in different organisms. I shall assume that the question concerns relationship between strength of codon–anticodon interaction and ...
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