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Very simply, mutations do occur, as they do for any cultured organism. This is a well recognized problem in many fields of biology where organisms are cultured and remains in particular a problem for cultured mammalian cell research. As far as I know there is no method for slowing or altering the rate of mutation as this is an inherent part of the RNA-...


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Each individual case will be different, but in general it is useful to ask "why did the vaccinated person still catch the Covid disease?" If they caught the disease because the vaccine had essentially no effect on them (for example, some immunocomprimised individuals who cannot generate an appropriate immune response), then they are likely to be at ...


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“Is this not toxic for the body since it is killing your own cells? ” Yes, cytotoxic T cells do kill mRNA vaccine-transfected cells, but not to the extent of harming your body. This is because the mRNA vaccine cannot be not integrated into the host genome, mRNA then will be degraded after translation within hours, preventing spike proteins variants to be ...


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Although specific time is not yet clear, the coronavirus mRNA vaccine is expected to be degraded within hours after translation, according to Rebecca Dutch, Ph.D., a virologist at the University of Kentucky. "It’s unclear how long this degradation takes. With regular mRNA, it’s within hours. The special coating involved with mRNA coronavirus vaccines ...


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The short answer to how vaccines are spread around the body is, quickly. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? The reason vaccines are often delivered into muscle tissue is because muscle tissue is highly vascularized with both blood and lymphatic vessels. Immediately after a vaccine injection, the delivery vehicle (...


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According to this paper written by Abishek Wadhwa and his colleagues, the vaccine mRNA will exert its function independent on active cell division because it is not integrated into the host genome [1]. Interestingly, I also found this paper which indicates that there is a possibility that the mRNA can enter the nucleus during cell division. During the ...


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According to this paper written by Emily Bettini and Michela Locci, mRNA-LNPs and locally produced antigens are taken up by dendritic cells via endocytosis [1]. Within the cell, mRNA is translated into the antigenic protein. These locally produced antigens are either degraded by proteasome in the cytoplasm or secreted from the host cell, leading to 2 ...


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I’m assuming the question refers to the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines in which Lipid NanoParticles (LNP) are used and to the injection to be intramuscular (i.m.). According to a blog by Derek Lowe [1], the parts of your body producing the coronavirus Sprike protein antigen are: the muscle tissue at the site of injection, the lymphatic tissue ...


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