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51

Due to the nature of the immune system, even people who receive the same vaccine will have a different set of antibodies. Our immune systems generate a vast number of essentially random recognition combinations, unique to every individual. This leads to a polyclonal response to both infections and vaccines, involving multiple antibodies and the fine details ...


8

Well, we can work this out empirically. We know that the average molecular mass of a base of a RNA is 339.5 g/mol. However to calculate the approximate molecular mass of a single-stranded RNA molecule, you multiply the number of bases by 320.5 and add 159 (same source). This means for a single-stranded molecule of 1000 bases, it will have a molecular mass of ...


7

The spike proteins expressed by cells that take up mRNA or ChAdOx vaccines are modified so they cannot induce membrane fusion. However, the research article you refer to indicates that circulating spike protein damages endothelial cells simply by binding ACE2, which suggests vaccine derived spike protein could still cause this kind of damage if it enters the ...


5

What you describe, creating the spike protein independently and delivering it, is exactly what is done by subunit vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax. As already noted in @Amanda's answer, mRNA is great at amplifying a delivery, so you need a lot less to be delivered. The manufacturing process for the vaccine itself is a lot more ...


4

You have it wrong. Coronaviruses are part of a family of viruses that are called "enveloped viruses". These all have an "envelope" comprised of a lipid layer derived from the host cell as the virion exits. The envelope is distinct from the spike. The spike protein is produced by the virus during replication and is not found naturally in a ...


3

The source for the linked article is this FDA factsheet, which gives the following description for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (emphasis mine): The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is supplied as a frozen suspension in multiple dose vials; each vial must be diluted with 1.8 mL of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP prior to use to form the ...


2

According to this paper, IgM antibodies can last until week 12 after infection by the SARS-CoV-2. Presumably, in case of vaccination, this time should be a lot shorter since the amounts of antigens produced are much less. It is suggested by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that antibody test should be taken at least 2 weeks after ...


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