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53 votes
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Are the antibodies developed by differing vaccines still the same?

Due to the nature of the immune system, even people who receive the same vaccine will have a different set of antibodies. Our immune systems generate a vast number of essentially random recognition ...
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38 votes
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

It is not only possible, these vaccines are in active development. Biontech (the company which developed the Comirnaty Corona vaccine) was founded to develop vaccines against cancer, Moderna is ...
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15 votes
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Validity of report of reverse-transcription of Covid-19 vaccine mRNA in cultured human liver tumor-derived cells

Re: Intracellular Reverse Transcription of Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine BNT162b2 In Vitro in Human Liver Cell Line by Alden et al. ( Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(3), 1115-1126; https://...
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15 votes

Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

Might not be the answer you're looking for, but there's already a vaccine for one particular type of cancer - cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is largely caused by a virus though (HPV, Human ...
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  • 469
15 votes

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

While the linked paper presents interesting results, the conclusions must be interpreted in context of their in vitro methods and cannot be readily extrapolated to understand the in vivo effect of ...
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  • 7,564
14 votes

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

The authors explicitly suggest the first part of your question in their discussion section: indicating that full–length spike–based vaccines may inhibit the recombination of V(D)J in B cells, ...
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12 votes
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Viral vector vaccines - why doesn't the viral vector get attacked by the innate immune system?

These Chimpanzee adenoviral vectors do not bypass the innate immune system at all. In fact they are used precisely because of their activation of the innate immune system, which then results in ...
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9 votes
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

The spike proteins expressed by cells that take up mRNA or ChAdOx vaccines are modified so they cannot induce membrane fusion. However, the research article you refer to indicates that circulating ...
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9 votes
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

Well, we can work this out empirically. We know that the average molecular mass of a base of a RNA is 339.5 g/mol. However to calculate the approximate molecular mass of a single-stranded RNA molecule,...
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7 votes

Safety of Covid-19 vaccine for pregnant women

The CDC has evaluated COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant people, and has determined that they are safe. The main worry that they were addressing, however, was not either of your concerns (which do not ...
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6 votes

Viral vector vaccines - why doesn't the viral vector get attacked by the innate immune system?

The innate immune system has many different components to it. If we consider a natural virus, like the base adenovirus used as a vector used in the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, then we can assume that ...
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6 votes
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Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

What you describe, creating the spike protein independently and delivering it, is exactly what is done by subunit vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax. As already noted in @...
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4 votes
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Understanding mRNA vaccine for COVID

You have it wrong. Coronaviruses are part of a family of viruses that are called "enveloped viruses". These all have an "envelope" comprised of a lipid layer derived from the host ...
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3 votes

Ingredients in Pfizer vaccine

The source for the linked article is this FDA factsheet, which gives the following description for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (emphasis mine): The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is ...
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  • 7,564
3 votes

How long after taking a vaccine shot (Oxford–AstraZeneca) could an individual test negative for antibody (IgM)?

According to this paper, IgM antibodies can last until week 12 after infection by the SARS-CoV-2. Presumably, in case of vaccination, this time should be a lot shorter since the amounts of antigens ...
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3 votes

Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

Funny how only the Chinese financially sponsored this research you're talking about, despite the fact that the paper has some American co-authors. Anyway, it's the dose that makes the poison. This ...
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3 votes
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CCTV cameras in Microbiology (Pathology) Laboratories

No - cameras would not capture the detail of the experiments being performed, nor would many of the experiments make sense without some context for the individual labels, if the camera could see them. ...
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3 votes

How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen?

MHC presentation of cleaved spike protein is only part of the picture; afterall, the immunity conferred by vaccines is largely owed to neutralizing antibodies produced by B-cells, which do not ...
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2 votes

How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen?

Your assumption is wrong. A mRNA vaccine only contains a mRNA for the protein against which you want to vaccinate, encapsulated in a lipid membrane. These membrane vesicle fuses with the membrane of ...
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  • 49.2k
1 vote

How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen?

How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen? According to a DynaMed article, the egress mechanisms expected to play a role are 3: (Note that this image may be somewhat ...
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  • 3,032
1 vote

Antibody detection - infection-induced vs vaccine-induced - is it common (or not) for a test to be positive for both?

Short answer: no. Because all vaccines (that I know of) rely on protein or polysaccharide production in some form, whether "natural" (e.g. inactivated virion, subunit vaccines) or "...
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