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9

Rabies virus enters the body, typically from a bite, and then enters nerves which it follows up to the brain. An immune response to a first exposure of a pathogen generally takes many days, perhaps weeks, to develop to the point where it's protective. This is often even slower when the pathogen is in nerves, which are relatively sheltered from the immune ...


4

The kidney is essentially a filter which extracts dissolved waste products & water from the blood. It basically allows only molecular-sized things to pass, otherwise it would continually leak blood cells. The digestive tract OTOH is basically a tube. Stuff gets mashed up at one end and ejected at the other. Even fairly large objects can pass through ...


5

Urine is contaminated with skin bacteria and possibly something excreted from your blood. A very tiny fraction of urine is microbial. Feces is basically a solid mass of undigested food, gut bacteria, and their byproducts. Many gut bacteria in particular have evolved in the conditions the human body produces so many can survive well in human tissue. about 30%...


3

I can only speak to what I am familiar with, but I would assume that the large majority of those viruses are bacteriophages. These bacteriophages, or "phages" for short, are viruses that infect bacteria. I should mention that these phages are not human pathogens though. When we go out into the field to discover novel phages, we often go to wastewater ...


6

Many gut microbes are pathobionts or opportunistic pathogens — these organisms can be part of the normal gut flora (microbiome) of healthy individuals, but under the right (for them) circumstances (e.g.s: when introduced into the bloodstream by a cut, or due to immunosuppression) they can cause disease.1,2 As for urine, there are many fewer microbes present ...


3

Yes. This has been possible since the 1990's. In the US recently, the flu vaccine was recently offered as a nasal spray. There is current research being done to aerosolize several vaccines. Public health officials have an interest in this method due to it being less expensive to produce, more people can receive the vaccine in a shorter time frame, and less ...


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