New answers tagged

10

These Chimpanzee adenoviral vectors do not bypass the innate immune system at all. In fact they are used precisely because of their activation of the innate immune system, which then results in greater immunity because activation of the innate immune system results in antigen presentation and then activation of the adaptive immune system. The reason they ...


6

The innate immune system has many different components to it. If we consider a natural virus, like the base adenovirus used as a vector used in the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, then we can assume that the virus already has sufficiently effective strategies in place to deal with them. In particular: Physical and chemical barriers are irrelevant, given an ...


0

The Wikipedia article on Coronavirus does a good job of answering this question. The name relates to the appearance of the virus in electron micrographs where it resembles a 'solar corona'. The original paper, published in Nature in 1968 (surprising to me that it is so recent), is available here


3

While some viruses, such as influenza, can indeed hybridize to form different strains, you should not worry about SARS-CoV-2 hybridizing with anything but another coronavirus. They are simply too far removed, taxonomically, for such an interaction to be plausible. Consider the following: The taxonomic classification of SARS-CoV-2 is: Viruses; Riboviria; ...


5

General approach to identifying non-standard bases in organisms Purify from source material with standard separation methods Identify using chemical methods and comparison with known compounds Establish the biochemical pathway for synthesis etc. — the specific reaction(s) required to produce (and handle) the compound and the enzymes responsible for ...


1

OK, if you insist on the vaccine vulnerability being yes/no, then you've essentially got a situation where A and B are totally unrelated viruses. Here's a real-world situation: Let's call A "COVID" and B "RSV". Before we had a COVID vaccine and during the lockdowns, RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), had dropped to very low levels because ...


7

This is a lateral flow assay. [image source] A sample is applied at one end of the strip and flows across to the other side by capillary action. It first encounters antibodies against the target antigen and which are conjugated to some reporter (in the image above, the reporter is colloidal gold). When the sample contacts these antibodies, they too will ...


19

The general issue of what exactly a "species" is has been addressed numerous times here, in different forms. Some good answers can be found at: Defining "species" (Are species an emergent property or an ensemble of quantitative differences?) How could humans have interbred with Neanderthals if we're a different species? When has an ...


4

I would define a “polybasic cleavage site” as: A region on a protein consisting of several basic amino acids (generally arginine (R) and lysine (K), rather than histidine) that determines the substrate specificity of certain classes of proteases for that protein. It can also be regarded as a recognition site for the enzyme. The relevance of this to the ...


-3

A polybasic cleavage site is a cleavage site consisting of polybasic amino acids. An acid is polybasic when it is able to donate more than one proton in aqueous solution. In a titration curve, polybasic acids show as many equivalence points as they are poly. https://www.w3spoint.com/ionization-of-a-polybasic-acid


Top 50 recent answers are included