AMR
  • Member for 6 years, 5 months
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1 answers
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How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)
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According to Lewin's Genes XI - Krebs et. al on Eukaryotic Transcription, RNA Splicing, and Processing It is not clear whether RNA polymerase II actually engages in a termination event at a ...

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What is the point of a runny nose during a cold?
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Edited by request for clarity The biological purpose of a runny nose is to clear pathogens and allergens trapped in the mucus out of the nasal cavity and sinuses as a result of rhinitis or sinusitis. ...

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Function and Characterization of poly(T) and (AT)
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Poly(T) is an oligonucleotide with only repeating thymine residues. These are generally used as primers in Reverse Transcription PCR, as mature eukaryotic mRNAs have a Poly(A) [adenosine] tail added ...

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Number of elongating RNA polymerases on a gene
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Regulation of RNA polymerase II activation by histone acetylation in single living cells by Stasevich et al. provides detail on how they were able to determine the number of elongating RNA polymerase ...

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Can specific B-cells be created in a lab?
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We aren't there yet. There is a complex interplay between antigen recognition, presentation, and activation that would have to be worked out. You would also need to engineer the corresponding T-Cell ...

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How is HIV evolutionarily viable despite its extreme virulence?
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a mutated form of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. In simians (Apes and Monkeys, not including humans), SIV is not pathogenic, in most cases, however, when the mutated ...

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Why is the swelling of bread when placed in water not considered to be caused by osmosis?
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The phenomena that you are describing, where bread, which is a porous material, similar to a sponge, absorbs water, is the absorption of water by capillary action. As @Joel mentioned, osmosis is ...

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Short videos on evolutionary biology
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I saw this HHMI video today. It is called The Animated Life of A.R. Wallace, and it discusses the contributions that Alfred R. Wallace made to evolutionary theory. It is a little long for your stated ...

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About acetyl-coA in the Krebs Cycle of respiration
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Pyruvate transfers an acetyl group to coenzyme A. The acetyl group from acetyl co-A is the molecule that provides the 2 carbon atoms that get added to oxaloacetate to form citrate, and as you said, ...

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Could a trans-female person ever become pregnant?
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Medical science has reached the point where it is able to consider performing uterine transplants in genetically female (cis-female) patients born without a uterus. In the MedlinePlus report, First ...

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How does sepsis affect heart function?
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While the heart is affected during septic shock, it is the result of the chain of events that occur as a result of a systemic release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-$...

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How heavy are all foreign microorganisms in and on the human body?
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Edit: Matters Arising In this Nature News article, Scientists bust myth that our bodies have more bacteria than human cells, and in the bioRxiv pre-print article, Revised estimates for the number of ...

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Why are the genomes of Humans 99.5% the same?
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In a genome that is 3 billion base pairs, a difference of 0.5% works out to a difference of 15 million bases. When a single base change can change the amino acid sequence of a protein, that can add up ...

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What is the difference between a circular and a cat's-eye (slit) pupil?
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There was a study published this last year (2015) that suggests that the pupil style of an animal is related to its strategy for predation. This means that land animal pupils evolved as adaptations to ...

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What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?
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The CD4 receptor is vital for the proper functioning of the immune system. It is found not only on T-Lymphocytes, but also on macrophages and dendritic cells. Its function on T-cells is to stabilize ...

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When was the last common ancestor of pig and human?
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Last common ancestor is about 97.5 Million Years Ago. TimeTree.org Pig vs. Human That being said, they are close enough to us that they are a vector for influenza viruses that are able to make the ...

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Is honey in hot green tea unsafe?
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Heated Honey and HMF In this paper, Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats, by Annapoorani, et.al.;...

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Do mutant alleles result from mutation of the wild type?
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The determination of whether an allele is wild-type or mutant has to do with the frequency that it is observed within a population. In genetics, a wild-type allele can be defined as an allele, or ...

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Why human skin colour disprove natural selection?
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Your conclusion is actually the exact opposite of the reality. Light skin in colder climates (i.e. climates that have short winter days) is selected for because melanin blocks the absorption of 310nm ...

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Carl Sagan's ideas on the self-extermination of technological civilizations
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It sounds like what you may be referring to is Fermi Paradox: The Fermi paradox — or Fermi's paradox — is the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of ...

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What are allogametes? please explain
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You may be getting confused with the term Allogamy. Humans most higher animals are allogamous, which means that the ovum from one organism is fertilized by spermatozoa of a different organisms. If ...

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Why does the kidney of a cow have lobules, why the kidney of a human hasn't any?
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It appears that the invagination of the renal kidney is vestigial from development and unlike human and other mammals, the bovine kidney does not form a smooth outer cortex. The kidneys of the ...

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How may the age of a child be estimated when required to do so, in video-graphic evidence?
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In short, without direct physical evidence (forensic or medical examination), testimony, or documentation to act as proof, you are left up to the discretion of the court to determine whether evidence ...

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Do intestinal flora have the same DNA as their host?
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Could you suggest a good source for beginners. - Louis Somers The interactions between the human body and its microbiome are quite complex. I am going to provide you with an answer that will be based ...

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495 views
Can an argument be made that humans are 90% bacterial?
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I am not sure what you read as you have not supplied any references, but humans are not 90% bacterial cells. (OP subsequently provided; see Edit 2) Humans are 100% human cells, however for every one ...

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How many genes does D. melanogaster have?
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EDIT Personal correspondence to representative at FlyBase.org In FlyBase we have been gathering information about genes and phenotypes for over 20 years including information from papers and ...

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Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome?
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In a wild-type human, you will inherit one paternal chromosome and one maternal chromosome, in this case, chromosome 15. The paternal chromosome which is packaged into the sperm will be methylated in ...

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Why do humans masturbate?
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One word. DOPAMINE See this article on Reward System and this one on Dopamine Those basically answer your question as to addiction, urge, and feelings of relaxation. There is absolutely nothing ...

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Red fox with blue legs
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Original vs. Adjusted Adobe Camera Raw Temperature Adjustment +30 / Tint Adjustment +3 The fox has black skin and fur. The blue is just a problem with the White Balance of the photograph. See ...

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Enzymes and plasmids
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Your estimation of the sizes of the fragments for pC508 are incorrect. Look at the size of the plasmid at the center of the circle.The size of your fragments has to add up to that number. So if you ...

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