Propofol: a widely used i.v. anesthetic with GABA agonistic properties. It has to be given continuously i.v. When stopped, effects wear off in minutes, and recovery is without serious side effects and little nausea. Induction is quick (minutes or less) since it is administered i.v. Aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine), an adenosine receptor antagonist, antagonizes its effects (Sakurai et al., 2008).
Sufentanil: an opioid. Like propofol, when administered i.v. it is fast acting (onset after 6 minutes) and its effects wear off in ~30 min. Because of its short half life, recovery is fast with few side effects (Mendel, 2014). Full opiate antagonists like naloxone, or partial antagonists like buprenorphine can be used to counteract opioid anesthesia. Note that more common opioids, including heroin, morphine and fentanyl are longer-acting (say hours after injection) and probably not what you are after.
Ketamine: an NMDA receptor antagonist. It is only used in animal surgeries nowadays, and it is not used for human anesthesia anymore. I mention ketamine only because its effects last for about 30 min after oral ingestion, and it's onset is very rapid (within a minute i.v.). Its side effects include delirium and hallucinations up to 24 hours after use. These side effects are pretty serious and reason for its ban in human anesthesia. I am not aware of antagonists of ketamine action. Theoretically spoken, NMDA receptor agonists would do the job, but that is a pretty dangerous class of drugs and mostly applied experimentally as far as I know.
- Mendel J Clin Anesth (2014); 26: S1–S7
- Sakurai et al., J Anesth (2008); 22:86–8