Humans do prefer fatty, sweet/starchy and salty. And fatty foods are rich in vitamins. How well can humans detect vitamin content apart from fattiness of food? Can humans choose the vitamin-richer of otherwise identical peanut butter, cheese or chicken leg?
Based on what I could search I guess that humans (and other organisms) usually do not have strong sensory mechanisms for micronutrients (Miyamoto et al, 2013).
There are some reports on sensing of metal ions, especially zinc and copper, by some organisms, including mammals (Bird, 2015; Ballou and Wilson, 2016). However, I haven't come across any study that talks about vitamin sensing.
A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism
A vitamin is therefore not defined by its structure but by its availability. There is therefore no taste associated to vitamins in general. So, no we are not able to sense vitamins generally speaking just because there is no natural objective category of substances that one can call vitamin.
Note by the way, that the health effect of vitamins supplmentation (for most people) is debated. For example, you might want to have a look at the following two skeptics posts
One of the most important scientist of the 20th century, Linus Pauling advocated for the health benefits of vitamin C. Due to his strong influence, the reputation of vitamin C quickly grew but his work remained controversial and there are still very little evidence that supplement of vitamin C does any good.