I am coding a DNA translater, based on the homosapiens genome, & i knowing that the data provided from NCBI is surely not 100% precise (there may be some base changes / removes etc...)

, & i want to prevent/bypass those mistakes to get a 'close' list of the REAL chain of proteins produced, so i was wondering how the frameshift do not change an entire species, taking into consideration that if 1 or 2 bases are removed , => then all the dna/rna translation will be modified therefore => ALL proteins will change & even the start/stop codons will change its location

(am not a biologist, am asking why the frameshift doesnt do that & create a new species from 1 or 2 base changes??)

  • $\begingroup$ It does change the location of start/stop codons, but they still remain the start/stop codons $\endgroup$ Commented Aug 19, 2018 at 5:18

1 Answer 1


Genes (here defined as protein coding sequences) are not perfectly aligned the ones after the others in the genome. In fact, in humans (like in most eukaryotes), only a small fraction (of the order of the percent) of the genome directly code for proteins.

Each gene translation unit starts with specific markers. Not even talking about what will be or won't be transcribed, a translation unit starts with the start codon (AUG). Hence, a frameshift mutation will only affect the gene in which (or even, only the exon) in which the mutation happened.

For writing a software that finds coding sequences (and translate them), you will need to learn much more about genetics. You might want to have a look at an intro course on molecular genetics / central dogma / translation, transcription such as a number of the biology classes on Khan Academy for examples.


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