My attempt:

Transcription - RNA polymerase Translation - aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

I know that the ribosome almost runs translation, but I don't think ribosomes are enzymes, which is why I went with aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. Is this right?

  • $\begingroup$ Depending on how specific you want your answers, you should define which steps you want the enzymes for. Transcription uses several enzymes, and Translation the same - including Ribozyme activity at the aminotransfer site in the Ribosome. $\endgroup$ – MCM Sep 12 '12 at 3:20
  • $\begingroup$ This would be a great time to look up what the 2009 nobel prize was awarded for. $\endgroup$ – bobthejoe Sep 12 '12 at 21:04

Sorry, but you started on the right track. What you're looking for is called the central dogma of protein synthesis.

Genomic DNA is transcribed in the nucleus into messenger RNA (mRNA) by RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase is DNA-dependent; it needs a DNA template to make an RNA version of the message.

The messenger RNA moves into the cytoplasm where it gets translated by ribosomes into an a polypeptide (protein). Ribosomes are the enzyme that do the translating, and perhaps your confusion is because ribosomes are made up of both RNA molecules and proteins (a ribonucleotide complex).

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are the enzymes that make aminoacyl tRNAs (tRNA for short). These tRNA bring individual amino acids to the ribosome as the ribosome is extending the polypetide product of the mRNA message.

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