If people in ancient times had no scientific knowledge about natural selection and Darwinism, how were they knowledgeable about animal domestication and artificial selection? What tools and techniques did they use to intercept animal reproduction and obstetrics? Did they use any artificial insemination tools?
That might be more a history or archeology question than a science question.
While there was no concept of long term evolution, many people could witness that offspring of individuals (whether plants or animals, incl. humans) looked like their parents. From there, it is not much of a stretch to understand that by breeding individuals with desired traits, you would get offspring with desired traits. This is artificial selection at play.
Early animal domestication did not use much artificial insemination. According to Britannica.com, the first successful artificial insemination in animal was in 1780s only.
Intended vs unintended selection pressures
Note however that I do not want to claim that most of the domestication traits evolve by the human intention to make them more frequent in the population. It might be just that individuals poorly adapted to domestication would flee or get harmed or something and would therefore have lower survival. For example, aggressive individuals could get hurt by their farmer.
Note btw, that wether the selection pressure by the farmers were intended or not, we still typically use the term artificial selection.
I think this is a very interesting question but not necessarily directly related to genetics. This is more a question related to fields such as cognitive archaeology/anthropology and technological lithic analysis of how tools were made.
I'm not too familiar with Homo sapiens myself as it's unrelated to my field, but a close friend of mine is an evolutionary anthropologist who specializes in Homo neanderthalensis but knows a whole lot more about this than I do. I asked him for some suggested reading about this and here are his suggested introductions to the subject.
General interest but very comprehensive and in depth: Stringer, C. & Andrews, P. (2011). The complete world of human evolution. London New York: Thames & Hudson, Inc.
College textbook: Boyd, R. & Silk, J. (2009). How humans evolved. New York: W.W. Norton
The 2nd source actually delves into the topic of evolution of human intelligence, behaviour, culture, genetics and mating. If you want to learn more about the technological evolution, development, production and sophistication of stone tool making I suggest reading about things such as the Levallois technique. I hope this provided an answer to at least some of your questions! :)