14 votes
Accepted

Are humans capable of both anaerobic respiration, and lactic acid fermentation?

Humans have no anaerobic respiration, if we define this as oxidation of a substrate with an external electron acceptor other than oxygen. In humans, the terminal electron acceptor in respiration is ...
  • 5,605
10 votes
Accepted

Does Glycolysis produce lactate, or pyruvate?

I think you will find all text books (e.g. Berg et al. Ch 16) describe glycolysis as the conversion of glucose to pyruvate, as this is how it has been defined and considered in countless biochemical ...
  • 22.6k
9 votes

Why is carbon dioxide produced in alcohol fermentation but not in lactic acid fermentation?

Glycolysis needs a steady supply of NAD+ to happen - this is the driver for the anaerobic oxidation to lactate and ethanol, although this is energetically much less favorable than the complete ...
  • 49.4k
9 votes
Accepted

Is hydrochloric acid suitable for pickling food?

Short answer Weak organic acids are more effective for food preservation then strong mineral acids, mainly because undissociated weak acids can cross the cell membrane and disrupt cell physiology from ...
  • 51.5k
6 votes
Accepted

Reason behind using inducible promoter for heterologous expression

Heterologous promoters often express genes that are toxic to the organism when expressed in too high quantities. When the genes are expressed constitutively, the organism will either grow slowly or ...
  • 9,364
6 votes

Is iodised salt harmful to the lactofermentation process?

This study found no difference in the outcome of sauerkraut fermentation with or without iodized salt: There was no clear influence of iodized salt on microbial populations. Stable ...
  • 61
6 votes
Accepted

How exactly do birds get drunk eating fruit? Fermentation should be anaerobic

The insides of fruits are relatively anaerobic environments. Natural fermentation, as in berries that get birds intoxicated, is primarily from yeast, and it seems most likely that humans recognized ...
  • 37.1k
5 votes
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Cellular Respiration/Fermentation Problem Leading to Lack of Energy

Short answer (A) is a possible answer and is indeed cause for fatigue, as pyruvate is needed for the Krebs cycle to run. The krebs cycle is an essential step in the generation of ATP in aerobic ...
  • 51.5k
5 votes
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Fermentation to acetic acid

There are some recipes available on the web, my answer is based on this webpage and this information: The process itself is rather easy and you can either use ready bought apple juice, homemade juice ...
  • 49.4k
5 votes

Do all prokaryotes have ATP synthases and an electron transport chain?

This is an interesting question (I really mean this — see below), for which a straight answer is remarkably difficult to find on the web. When I googled for it I got pages with statements that ...
  • 22.6k
5 votes
Accepted

Is glycolysis the beginning part of fermentation, or does fermentation follow glycolysis?

As @bpedit indicates in his comment, this is a semantic question — i.e. one regarding the meaning and usage of words. I will explain how I and others use these words and why. If you are convinced by ...
  • 22.6k
4 votes
Accepted

Do acetic acid bacteria use the electron transport chain when converting ethanol to acetic acid?

Yes I find it somewhat ironic that in a response a recent post from the poster concerning itself with the precise definition of ‘fermentation’ I argued that this was a semantic question because of ...
  • 22.6k
4 votes

Are humans capable of both anaerobic respiration, and lactic acid fermentation?

Muscle tissue is a good example of anaerobic fermentation. Lactic Acid is fermented and builds up in this tissue when we do large amounts of exercise. We use the Pyruvate molecule and LDH to produce ...
  • 41
4 votes

Can yeast ferment maltose directly?

The statement in your first paragraph is correct: for yeast to ferment a carbohydrate it must be fed into the glycolytic pathway which, in the case of oligomers of glucose (e.g. mannose) simply means ...
  • 22.7k
4 votes
Accepted

Why is it possible to make yoghourt with lactose-free milk?

Conversion of lactose to galactose and glucose is a part of the bacterial metabolism of lactose. So digested lactose would work. In fact, it should work for all kinds of 6-carbon sugars as lactic ...
  • 35.1k
3 votes

Fermentation of bananas

Fruit Moonshine is quite desirable :) Peel the bananas. Good workflow here: http://www.moonshiners.club/banana-moonshine-recipe/ It takes considerable work especially in large quantities. ...
  • 1,309
3 votes
Accepted

Can yeast in a primary fermentation of wine be used as a source of yeast for new fermentation?

Yes, it is possible to reuse yeast in both beer and wine fermentation - commercial brewers do it all the time for cost savings and batch reproducibility, and although I'm not as familiar with making ...
  • 14.9k
3 votes

What do different fermentation products have in common?

Although there is no net oxidation or reduction in glycolysis, a constant supply of NAD+ is (paradoxically) required in order for glycolysis to continue. Otherwise, the glyceraldyde-3-phosphate ...
  • 4,638
3 votes
Accepted

Acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation

Well, I’m not sure I should answer this, as your question is predicated by an incorrect supposition: Acetoacetyl-CoA is a C3 unit. 3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA / Butyryl is a C4 unit. Not according to Kegg: ...
  • 22.6k
2 votes
Accepted

Speciation and Phylogeny of Lactobacillus

generally, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the ones you should be looking at for milk-based fermentation products. although sometimes species like bifidobacterium are added, which is of a completely ...
  • 96
2 votes

Why would yeast grow but not produce alcohol?

I think only b.) is true. a. I cannot find evidence that maltose is toxic to yeasts (and I would hardly believe it, because it is a glucose dimer), however I found evidence, that yeasts might need ...
  • 4,450
2 votes
Accepted

How are at home fermentations without starter cultures controlled?

A "starter culture" is just a culture of preferred organisms. They probably differ little from local wild organisms. For example, a mixture of flour and water left to stand will (with luck) be ...
  • 2,759
2 votes
Accepted

How is NAD+ used in lactic acid fermentation after it is oxidized from NADH?

Anaerobic Glycolysis As this question refers to glycolysis in the context of lactic acid fermentation it clearly relates to anaerobic glycolysis, which is why I added that to the question. I believe ...
  • 22.6k
2 votes

Does Glycolysis produce lactate, or pyruvate?

Lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of glycolysis. If pyruvate was the end-product, there would be a major problem: glycolysis would stop. I am talking here about how cells 'obtain' ATP from ...
  • 4,638
2 votes

Are humans capable of both anaerobic respiration, and lactic acid fermentation?

I mentioned in comment quite early "apparently humans don't do anaerobic respiration at all. They only do a)aerobic respiration and b)fermentation. Humans can't use nitrate or sulfite as ...
  • 725
2 votes

Do all prokaryotes have ATP synthases and an electron transport chain?

Yes there are, though I had to dig a lot to find them. They are called strictly fermentative bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales (Firmicutes)) ferment glucose through pyruvate to lactate ...
2 votes
Accepted

What chemical conversions are involved , and what's the name for the process, when the muscles use lactate as an energy source?

I see you've already got an answer in the comments, so this is rather a collection (with more proper formulation) of comments. As is known, lactate is produced by muscles (generally) during exercise ...
2 votes

What chemical conversions are involved , and what's the name for the process, when the muscles use lactate as an energy source?

Thanks David And Homosapien.. HomoSapien has posted an answer which i've accepted. I have included here a useful diagram showing the conversion of Lactate to Pyruvate to AcetylCoA, and a description ...
  • 725
2 votes
Accepted

What molecules does amylase enzyme work on?

Your incomprehension is due to the fact that both starch and cellulose are polysaccharides. As it is said in the wiki page. Amylase is active only on alpha linkage like starch or glycogen. If you ...
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