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Questions tagged [nomenclature]

The principles, conventions, and terms used to systematically classify biological information, entities, processes, but also subfields of biology.

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What does the word specific epithet mean? [duplicate]

Is the species for Rosa indica and Mangifera indica 'indica' as you can see is the same in both. What does this signify. It is obvious that it has different species as they have different genus.
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Are there any rule that regulates using diacritics in the name of taxon authors?

The names of authors, who named a taxon, consits of lating letters and can include diacritics. Are there any rule that allows or prohibits diacritics in the name of taxon authors?
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Are All Taxonomic Groups Uniquely Named?

The Linnaean classification system classifies and groups organisms into taxonomic groups: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, etc. Obviously, a clade at any taxonomic level is uniquely determined by its ...
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Name of dsRNA (or dsDNA) where all strands are identical

What is the name of dsRNA (or DNA) where all component strands are identical (i.e. where the complex consists of multiple copies of the same ssRNA)? Example: 2 identical ssRNAs forming a dsRNA ...
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Why do both the mango and the bee have “Indica” in their binomial name?

In my textbook, it is written that the binomial name of mango is Mangifera indica and the binomial name of a bee is Apis indica. Now in the name the second part is the name of species. But mango and ...
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Hominidae is to hominid as Poaceae is to what?

I considered asking this on English.SE, but decided against it, since it strictly applies to biological nomenclature, which not many of them will know about - particularly that of plants. So, in ...
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Have traditional categories such as phylum, class, genus, been dispensed with in modern taxonomy?

Looking through the one zoom and EOL projects I see no reference to such categories.
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Should the infraspecific epithet agree in gender with the genus name?

Let's take the following plant name Gymnocalycium mihanovichii So we were to designate the yellow form of the plant, would it be Gymnocalycium mihanovichii f. aurea because forma is ...
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How a Name is Selected for Binomial Nomenclature

I understand the gist of how to construct a name using the Binomial Nomenclature, but I don't understand how to select a unique name. My contrived example comes from looking at this: acaulis: ...
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1answer
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Is there a family equivalent to “congener”?

Is there an equivalent word to "congener" but for species in the same family (family in the sense of the taxonomic rank)? "confamer"? "confamiler"??? I know I can just say "species X and other taxa ...
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Want reference for a convention

This answer to another question satisfactorily answer one of my major confusion. The convention is that in indicating any sequence feature† in a protein-coding gene on double-stranded DNA, a ...
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1answer
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Is there a name for the behavioral phenomena of when animals like ants sacrifice themselves?

Title says everything about the first question. The second question is: does the special case when ants apparently explode, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2018/04/20/meet-the-...
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FIbroblast vs fibrocyte [duplicate]

After i had been studing for histology examp i tried to solved one nominclature dilema.Its about fibrocytes and fibroblast. In my histology book is statment, that fibrocytes is special type of cell ...
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1answer
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On what basis is each chromosome given a number? [duplicate]

On what basis is each chromosome given a number? There appears to me to be no visible ordering between each pair. Is there any reason other than differentiation?
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What does “molecular” mean in the context of anatomy, for example the molecular layer of cerebral cortex

The first apical layer of the cerebral cortex is also called as the molecular layer, I could not find the exact reason of the naming. What I found: Molecular alongside its primary meaning in ...
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1answer
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Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
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3answers
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Names and abbreviations in biology

After one year in college, I am quite surprised with the number of different abbreviations used in biology for the same thing. I wonder if there are any rules for naming something new in biology, ...
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1answer
35 views

Difference between AjuA and ajuA in biosynthesis

I cannot for the life of me figure this out. In the following figure, you can find ajuA and AjuA for example. I do understand that the lower-case ones are the genes. The arrows indicate the direction ...
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How can a two genera share a latin name?

Recently, someone asked if species could share a latin name. In his answer, Remi.b said the latin name is unique to the species, and I think he is right. However, this made me remember that I once ...
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What is the difference between a protein and a factor?

In terms of nomenclature/semantics, why are some proteins named proteins, and some named factors? I've been revising on eukaryotic DNA, and I've come across some proteins that seem to serve roughly ...
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1answer
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What do you call clearly different sub-groups within a species?

If you look at species of bees and ants, you can clearly see there are drastically different specialized ants, like queen ants and workers. They're both part of the same species, yet are still ...
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What do the qualifiers used in botanical species names mean?

These are all the qualifiers I've come across so far. The first 3 were quite easy to google, but the other 4 have me stumped. I also can't say I'm completely clear on the nuances of ...
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2answers
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Do Black Pepper and Black Nightshade share specific characteristics?

In my textbook, I read that two organisms of the same species share specific or fundamental characters. Piper nigrum (Black pepper) and solanum nigrum (Black nightshade) share the same specific ...
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2answers
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How to produce correct epithet of a species named in the honor of a person?

I want to name a new diatom species in the honor of Prof. Vodyanitskiy. What will be the species epithet: "vodyanitskiya", or other? Are there any rules that regulates how the end of such epithets is ...
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“Higher plants” or “vascular plants”?

What is the difference — if any — between "higher plants" and "vascular plants"? On Wikipedia, "higher plants" redirects to "vascular plants", which seems like an indication that both ...
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3answers
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Are there cases when genus name is equal to the name of a higher taxon?

Are there any cases when the name of a genus equal to the name of a higher taxon: family, order, class, etc. in botany and zoology?
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What is the proper naming of Aminoacyl-tRNAs?

I want to refer to an aminoacyl-tRNA with the anticodon 3'-UAC-5' that is charged with methionine. What is the proper name for this molecule?
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Reason for name “Motile sperm domain-containing protein 2” if it has nothing to do with sperm

I am interested in a gene with the name "motile sperm domain-containing protein 2". The entry for the human gene in uniprot suggests that it does not have any relation to sperm or spermatogenesis. ...
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1answer
107 views

What is this insect, the bite of which is causing deaths?

This insect is currently found in Kolkata, and in many parts of West Bengal, India. Its bite results in a fever, and if not treated immediately, the victim dies. This is the insect: It seems that the ...
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1answer
54 views

What is the difference between kingdoms protistae and protoctistae?

I understand that both kingdoms represent primitive eukaryotic organisms, and both contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms. What are the points that distinguish one kingdom from the ...
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2answers
253 views

Why is the thalamic reticular nucleus called a nucleus?

In the Wikipedia article on nuclei I read: A nucleus is one of the two most common forms of nerve cell organization, the other being layered structures. Is there a specific and plausible reason, ...
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1answer
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What is the preferred way to abbreviate amino acids?

Amino acids are often denoted using either a 3-letter abbreviation or a 1-letter notation, e.g. Glutamine is denoted via $\mathrm{Gln}$ or $\mathrm{Q}$. When one notation should be preferred over ...
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2answers
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What exact characters determine an animal's Genus?

I do know that if two animals cannot naturally reproduce, they are said to be of two different species. But what determines the genus? Just for example, the African elephant belongs Loxodonta but the ...
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Is DEET (as in the mosquito repellent), a substituted phenethylamine? [closed]

Am I correct to say that N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) is a part of the phenethylamine class? It's structure meets the requirements to be a phenythylamine, however, I was not able to find anywhere ...
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2answers
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Who gives a newly discovered microbe its name?

Assuming a hitherto unknown microbe is found - who gives it its name?
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1answer
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What is the literal meaning of the scientific name for the cactus wren?

What does the scientific name Campylorhynchus brunneicapillum mean? I simply want to find a way to decipher the meaning of scientific names. In the past I had to translate the names syllable by ...
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Nucleoside triphosphates vs nucleotide diphosphates

A nucleoside can be defined as a nucleotide without its phosphate group. Thus, a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) is a nucleoside bound to 3 phosphates. This in turn must be equivalent to a nucleotide (...
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What instances are there in which two species share the same binomial name?

Since binomials are required to be unique only within a kingdom, two species can share the same binomial name if they are in different kingdoms. I know of one instance of this, Orestias elegans: this ...
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1answer
53 views

How to find sequencing data of a specific drosophila strain

I'm trying to correct low coverage parts of an assembly of these PacBio reads with Illumina data. According to PacBio they "have sequenced adult males from a subline of the ISO1 (y; cn, bw, sp) strain ...
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Where can I get a file/list of the common and scientific names of species?

I am searching for an un-encoded data file with common and scientific names for example of a few hundred species or tens of thousands, where I can search the common and scientific labels of organisms.
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Has the acronym DNA ever been widely understood to stand for deoxyribose nucleic acid?

I have a friend familiar with evolutionary biology who was recently bragging about how much he knows. I asked him what DNA stood for, and he answered it stood for 'deoxyribose nucleic acid'. When I ...
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2answers
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Gene vs. Protein Expression Assays

Are the terms gene expression assays and protein expression assays used interchangeably in molecular biology? Or is it expected of you to differentiate between the two terms. For example, if I ...
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1answer
277 views

What is the origin of the name “λ phage”?

The lambda bacteriophage which infects E. coli was first discovered by Esther Lederberg in 1950. However, in the earliest paper on the lambda phage that I could find, I was unable to find the ...
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1answer
60 views

How do you call the species that gives its name to a upper-level clade?

Just a silly question: I don't remember how the species giving its name to an upper-level clade is called. e.g. the name of family Canidae derives from Canis lupus You could say it is the "name-...
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1answer
107 views

Term of the type xxx-troph for a compound not used by an organism

A prototroph for compound X can make it A bradytroph grows faster if X is scavenged An auxotroph needs to scavenge X A hyperauxotroph lacks both the biosynthetic pathway and the transporters for X ...
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1answer
206 views

EC number classification of synthase?

It is quoted in wikipedia that: Following the EC number classification, they belong to the group of ligases , with lyases catalysing the reverse reaction. And we all know that enzymes are ...
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Why is aconitase classified as a lyase?

Aconitase in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle isomerizes citric acid to isocitric acid via cis-aconitic acid intermediate. Since overall it functions as an isomerase, why it does not belong to ...
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What are anagenesis and cladogenesis? [closed]

Are they two types of speciation? I have read wikipedia but can't figure out if they are really two types of speciation
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Why the name hypopharynx?

Why the tongue (like structure) in cockroach (or other insects) is called hypopharynx? In humans I know it's the lower part of pharynx, not a structure. Isn't this anatomical name misleading? Are ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b?

Does anyone know what is the difference between two miRNAs like hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b? The last letter in them shows what? Also, if we know that hsa-miR-33a targets gene A, can we say that hsa-...