Questions tagged [coronavirus]

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What is the Fatality Rate of the Common Cold?

During COVID-19, we've heard many comparisons between SARS-CoV-2 and the Flu, especially in terms of the case fatality rate (CFR). Currently, the Flu is thought to be around 0.1%, and according to the ...
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What are the odds of a second novel coronavirus emerging in 12-120 months? [closed]

It appears that SAR-COV-2 may well infect 4 billion people during the next 18 months. I would think this huge viral reservoir would create an environment favorable to genetic recombination events. Are ...
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Is it possible to create a virus like Corona? [closed]

Is it possible to create a virus like corona in a lab ?
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Understand and reproduce withdrawn publication method - Blastp - covid19

I try to reproduce the method of this withdrawn paper. I know this paper has been debunked and withdrawn. I am curious to understand the details of the method used on it. I am a programmer and I don't ...
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Why are masks still required for COVID-19 even after a vaccine is produced?

Background In Massachusetts, gov. Charlie Baker put out a four phase plan for reopening society. The last phase mentions the wearing of masks even after a treatment and vaccine have been released: ...
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Does coronavirus survives more on a surface if it's not exposed to air?

Coronavirus survives 72 and 24 hours on hard surfaces (steel, plastic etc) and soft surfaces ( clothes etc) respectively. Does this data change if the surface is not exposed to air? If yes, then by ...
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temporary vaccine manufacturing [duplicate]

during the CoVID-19 pandemic and other previous pandemics, why didn't scientist engineered bacteria to form the part of ACE-2 (this specific part without producing the whole enzyme) that is targeted ...
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Exact definition of homoplasy?

I am a poor mathematician looking into the Sars-Cov-2 genome. Is there a proper definition of the word homoplasy? Is it just mutations that happened independently or does there have to be indications ...
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Genomic location-coordinate of RdRp of SARS-CoV2

I understand that nsp12 is the RdRp protein in the ORF1 of SARS-CoV2 genome. And nsp12 starts from the starting nucleotide base of orf1ab. Could you please tell me the exact genomic location ...
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Triangulation number of the SARS CoV-19 virus

Is the triangulation number of the SARS CoV-19 virus capsid, in the sense of the Caspar-Klug theory, known? In case the Caspar-Klug theory does not apply to it, is it known what is its tiling, in ...
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What coronaviruses have been identified in racoon dogs?

Christian Dorsten says in an (Apr 26) interview in the Guardian that racoon dogs as [intermediate] source of coronavirues have been overlooked (in China): Q: What do we know about that intermediate ...
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Why is ACE2 not used as drug against covid? [closed]

Can ACE2 be produced and used as drug against covid? I read it is the receptor molecule. If it is in the organism the virus should bind to it and could not attack cells anymore? Is that right?
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Have any conclusions been made regarding the interaction of Covid-19 and ACE inhibitor medications? [migrated]

About two months ago, I started to see articles appear regarding the potential interactions between ACE inhibitor medications (commonly used to treat high blood pressure) and the severity of Covid-19 ...
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Why are men more susceptible to severe COVID-19?

It seems that globally, men are more susceptible to severe COVID-19 than women: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/men-are-much-more-likely-to-die-from-coronavirus-but-why This is seen in ...
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Who define the SARS-CoV-2 haplotypes?

If you look in this paper https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2006100 they work with several haplotypes of the virus. They claim that the definitions of the haplotypes come from GISAID/...
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Does the cell release the empty capsids?

The virus via the spike of the capsid connects to a receptor in a cell, then the DNA enters the cell wall. My question is what happens to the capsid - does it stay connected to the receptor or is ...
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Do we know if dogs are asymptomatic transmiters of sars-cov-2?

Dogs do not use mask when going for a walk nor they observe the security distance. On the contrary, they frequently join their noses, and put their noses where other dogs had put them before or had ...
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Can/have bacteria been engineered to express ACE 2 receptors?

In light of SARS-COV-2 binding to the ACE 2 protein in human cells, I was wondering if any bacteria exist or could exist that possess this membrane protein. If not, do you believe that an ACE 2 like ...
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COVID-19 Infection rate related to population size?

Recently, in the UK's daily government briefing they started showing the graphs that compare national death rates, adjusted by the population size of each country. I understand the various reasons ...
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Is it possible to force Sars-Cov-2 virus to mutate?

The title may definitely be a stupid question since I have no background in biology. I would like to know if the coronaviruses or any other can be manipulated artificially so that they stop spreading ...
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How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting? [closed]

I'm writing an experimental proposal as my final paper for my single molecule biophysics class. Part of the procedure I wrote involves intentionally infecting a culture of HeLa cells with SARS-CoV-2 ...
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Why do COVID19 serology tests focus on the nucleocapsid while vaccine efforts focus on the spike?

When I look at the specification sheets for many of today's serology tests like the new Roche test or the Abbott test, they use a nucleocapsid antigen in the test, looking for anti-nucleocapsid ...
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How do PARPs counteract coronaviruses?

I read that [SARS-CoV-2 has] a nonstructural protein called NSP3, a component of which blocks the host’s efforts to fight off the virus. In particular, this protein shuts down host enzymes called ...
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What is the lipid membrane of SARS-CoV-2 made of?

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus: in structural diagrams it is drawn with membrane glycoprotein (M), envelope protein (E) and spike protein (S) embedded in a lipid membrane. What specifically is the ...
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Reasons why this protein is not suitable as an immunogen?

In a paper entitled "Progress and Prospects on Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2", the authors write the following in section 2.5: "Compared with S, N, and M protein, E protein is not suitable ...
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Questions regarding serial passage of virus through animals arising from the paper The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2

In this answer on bioinformatics.stackexchange.com to the question inquiring about the validity of the paper Kristian G. Andersen et al, The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2, the author asserts the ...
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Is the receptor of SARS-CoV-like viruses in bats still unknown?

A fairly detailed 2012 review (Whittaker et al.) on the Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein noted that SARS-CoV-like viruses have been isolated in bats. In this ...
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Is the Alpaca-CoV still the closest known relative of HCoV-229E?

From a 2017 paper that suggests the more distant (and common) origin of both HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 is in African bat coronaviruses, I see that the closest virus most similar to HCoV-229E is Aplaca-...
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Is it obvious that immunity is not the problem? (covid-19)

The difference by age of severity of symptoms of people infected by covid-19 is so marked that one may think that older people could have been exposed to some virus (say at the middle of 20th century) ...
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How large a part of the corona-virus is coding?

If you find an example of a sequenced string of coronavirus it is about 30.000 long. Looking for example here https://nextstrain.org/ncov/europe you'll see that by far the largest part of this is ...
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Muller's ratchet and viruses

Do viruses suffer from Muller's ratchet? Can it significantly influence the current coronavirus pandemic?
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Could someone explain the join in the SARS-cov-2 genome at location 13468?

I am having trouble understanding the reference sequence for sars-cov-2, NC_045512.2 Three nucleotides equals one amino acid, right? But the nucleotide at position 13468 seems to be used twice, so ...
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How common are the “common” human coronaviruses?

I was listening to a virology expert on the Swedish radio yesterday. He said that there already were several corona viruses among humans that only affected children because basically all the adults ...
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What changes would allow cutting mRNA-based vaccine safety testing to 18 Months

I see a lot of skepticism among my fellow citizens following an interview that Bill Gates gave the BBC on the topic of Corona vaccines. The Gates foundation is funding several study ventures on Corona ...
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Which is more efficient as a germicide: UVC, Ozone or combination and why?

I've read many contradictory info about ozone vs UVC light irradiation and cannot come to a conclusion, I am totally confused. As it commonly known UV germicidal irradiation is very effective against ...
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How do we know that the “original animal exposure event” of a human to the Covid-19 virus occurred between October and December 2019?

In a Yale med page (interview) on Covid-19 from January it is said that The molecular dating of the virus genomes indicates that the original animal exposure event happened sometime between late ...
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What happens to a virus SARS-CoV-2 on an object?

Many articles say that "the coronavirus" — they probably speak of the SARS-CoV-2 — can "remain alive" for so many hours on some surfaces, so many days on some other surfaces. For example, "the virus ...
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Herd immunity without vaccines? (corona question)

Obviously there is herd immunity against many viruses such as measles because of vaccines. Can we say that there is herd immunity against any particular virus even though people are not getting ...
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How a person can transmit COVID-19 while his COVID-19 is still in incubation state?

A person with SARS 2003 cannot transmit that disease while his SARS is in incubation state but how a person with COVID-19 is transmitting COVID-19 even though his COVID-19 is in incubation period?
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What could independent investigators learn from the first (known) copies of the virus from Wuhan, if they had (physical?) access to these samples?

RFI reports: "You have to remember -- these labs are still open inside of China these labs that contain complex pathogens that were being studied. It's not just the Wuhan Institute of Virology," ...
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Is the SHC014 chimeric coronavirus “eerily similar” to Covid-19 in anything but a journalistic sense?

Gulf News writes: In the virology community, their project is known as "chimeric coronavirus", eerily similar to COVID-19. This chimera is created in a petridish, reportedly with the "surface spike ...
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Why does the SARS-CoV2 virus not remain infectious forever? Or does it?

Given that the majority of biologists do not currently consider viruses to be alive, a virus can never die. It can, however, get destroyed by long exposures to soapy water, alcohol, and apparently ...
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What are the short/long term effects of chloroquine on fundamental cell processes?

Does chloroquine, which affects the endosomal membrane traffic pathway (by affecting the acid environment used for fundamental endosomal reactions), have short/long-term effects on cell growth/...
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Does a longer exposure to covid-19 mean a higher viral load AND a worse infection?

I'm interested in knowing whether it's worse for someone to be exposed during a longer time to someone with covid-19 (coronavirus). Does it work that way? 1) Does that mean that I would get a higher ...
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Explain asymptomatic viral infection (ie covid) with no symptoms

There are a lot of people that are testing positive for covid that have no symptoms (ie they are asymptomatic). This raises the question - does the current test have an unacceptably high rate of ...
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To what exten do children produce antibodies against covid-19?

Here in Sweden all kindergartens and schools up to the month of June the year people turn 16 remain open. In almost all other European country schools are closed. I do not really know why our schools ...
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T-cell “exhaustion” in patients with Covid-19

Following up on my previously asked question, which asks how COVID infects T-cells in immune system. Here's a study that shows that recovered covid patients have "exausted t-cells". To quote: T ...
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Where can I find SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences for the UK?

I have downloaded and analysed the sequences of 832 complete samples from the European Nucleotide Archive but I cannot find a single one that was from the UK. I have also tried Genbank and they do not ...
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Can swarming locusts act as a vector for any human pathogens?

What human pathogens can the locusts currently swarming in Africa act as a vector for? E.g. can the locust swarm 'become a reservoir for' SARS-CoV-2? Measles? Ebola?
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Does Remdesivir interfere with human transcription?

Remdesivir is metabolized into a nucleotide analogue. It is incorporated in the viral genomes causing either termination of transcription or a dysfunctional genome. Thus, the new viral particles ...