Questions tagged [coronavirus]

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Do partial (nighttime) curfews curb the spread of epidemics (and via which mechanisms)?

Do partial (e.g., nighttime) curfews curb the spread of epidemics? What is the (epidemiological) mechanism by which partial curfews curb the spread of epidemics? Is there evidence from past or present ...
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How is are Coronavirus vaccines different from each other in terms of how they are made? [closed]

As far as I know there are different ways to produce vaccines: Genetically modify the genes of the virus, so it can't reproduce Damage the genes of the virus, so it can't reproduce Use only a part of ...
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1answer
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Sensitivity vs. Limit of Detection of rapid antigen tests

I'm comparing a bunch of SARS-CoV2 rapid antigen tests: Source Columns 4 and 6 list the values for sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD). How come that a test with a several times lower limit of ...
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Does a critical mass of infected individuals exist after which mutations will overtake vaccination attempts?

As we know, all organisms have a probability to undergo mutations when they replicate. For every infected individual with the Covid-19 their bodies are environments in which the SARS-CoV-2 may mutate ...
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Predicting how proteins will be cleaved

Is it possible to predict how proteins coded from mRNA will be cleaved? The reason I was interested in this is because I did some initial work to translate the raw Coronavirus RNA sequences, which you ...
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1answer
34 views

Minimum and maximum exposure to virus

Is it possible to say that there is a maximum exposure time for the virus so that even an exposure time beyond that - will leave us with the same chances of infection? If so, is there a way to ...
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1answer
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Questions on mid-2019 Covid-19 Spread in Spain

I recently read in the news from Reuters that Covid-19 was already present in the Europe in March 2019 as reported by the study by Chavarria-Miró et al (2020). According to Chavarria-Miró et al they ...
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COVID-19 infection data when partitioning to communities

Suppose we think of the disease in a certain country as follows. We have a set of "communities" $C_1,\dots,C_k$ in the country where $k$ is some small constant, say $10$. Each individual is ...
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Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
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What is the motivation behind the AAAAGCAUAU GACUAAAAAA of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine when encoding its polyadenylated ending?

The very end of mRNA is polyadenylated as usual, but the BNT162b2 vaccine ends the following sequence, as denoted in this article: ...
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What is the motivation behind the CCA -> CCU modification between SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine when encoding the signal peptide?

The S glycoprotein signal peptide in SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine is encoded by: ...
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Is there any difference between strain and mutation/mutant?

Experts are closely monitoring the strain, which has rapidly spread through the country's south. Source Most of the media/newspapers are calling VOC-202012/01 a COVID strain, instead of a COVID ...
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1answer
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What makes some viruses more infectious than others?

This week a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was discovered in the UK, and reports are saying that it's more infectious than the strains we've been dealing with for the past year. Which made me ...
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Is it plausible that strict lockdowns made it more likely for the new variant of COVID to have emerged?

My idea is that strict lockdowns put greater evolutionary pressure on the coronavirus by restricting oppurtunities to be transmitted, meaning that a faster-spreading variant had much less competition. ...
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Do mRNA vaccines encoded proteins get glycosylated?

per recent hype around the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (or sars-ncov-2) it got me thinking about the mRNA vaccine principle. From my biochem education I've taken, that human proteins are usually ...
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Coronavirus mutation: bad luck or a consequence of vaccination?

I would like to know whether a mutation within a virus (such as the new coronavirus mutation that appeared in England source) is a consequence of the vaccination program - maybe because it is ...
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
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Does SARS-CoV-2 kill its host cell or not?

Wikipedia says that Initial spike protein priming by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for entry of SARS-CoV-2.After a SARS-CoV-2 virion attaches to a target cell, the cell's ...
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What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
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What goes into a vaccine placebo, typically and in the specific case of Pfizer's SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials?

I am curious about what actually goes into a vaccine placebo formulation, given that there were apparently some reactions reported by trial subjects who received the Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 placebo. From ...
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Why does this study about genetic likelihood of COVID hospitalization not associate risk to base pairs?

In the study "Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19", (free to download) the authors share their findings on which genomes seem to be associated with an increased likelihood of ...
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1answer
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Can one derive COVID-19 risk from a cheap consumer genetic test like 23andme?

Studies have found genes associated with a significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19, some of them claiming it to be 1.6 times the general risk. They mention genes at markers such as rs35044562, ...
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How good are the hematologic parameters (e,g, IL6 or others) in predicting which patients will develop a severe COVID-19 disease?

Clinical implications of the hematologic profile of COVID-19 patients including cytokine storm, coagulation profile and thrombophilic complications are starting to be recognized. Hypercoagulability ...
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To a population with no immunity, why is smallpox or measles more deadly compared to COVID-19?

Specifically, this is not a question asking how easily a virus spread in a population (airborne, asymptomatic spread, etc), but regarding the mechanism or the "havoc" it wreaks once inside a ...
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Why is half dose of Oxford's vaccine of covid more effective than full dose?

I recently read in a newspaper that the half dose of the Oxford's vaccine is 90% effective while the full dose is only 62% effective. Why is this the case ?
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Is there a survey on whether people have gained or lost weight as a consequence of lockdown?

I am not sure if this is the right forum for asking such a question. Moderators can of course close it if it isn't and please migrate it to relevant site. Is there a survey/study that statistically ...
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What does vaccine efficacy mean?

In the last few weeks, Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna and AstraZeneca have each released preliminary estimates of the efficacy of their SARS-COV-2 vaccines. But what do their respective efficacy percentages ...
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2answers
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Sequence structure of antibodies

It is said that "When a virus or a pathogen enters the body, the immune-response produces Y-shaped proteins called antibodies to bind to the pathogen or virus". "Also it is possible to ...
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Why does sequencing virus proteins take time?

According to the below paper, the coronavirus spike protein sequence was available to scientists by end of february 2020 - the begin of march 2020 timeline. I had this question that why does ...
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SARS-COV-2 detectability versus viability

This week (#47 of 2020) two meta-reviews were published in the Lancet. Ct values and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, a brief review published on 19 November in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, ...
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Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
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1answer
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Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine

Recent news of Pfizer vaccine for corona needing -70C temperature, made me thinking why such a low temperature is needed for mRNA based vaccine? Are there other vaccine around which need such a low ...
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Can vaccination be explained by a principle of “broad specifity” of immune cells?

In the context of Covid-19, in Denmark all ferrets/minks in farms were killed, as there is infection in humans by the ferret corona-subtype. Counterintuitively, a virus transferred from ferret might ...
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1answer
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Can a non-response to a vaccine be tested?

The BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is said to be 90% effective. Is there a test to establish the (degree of) success in individuals of a vaccine at provoking the desired immune response? ...
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What is the physiological function of the CoV-2 targeted ACE2-Mas receptor pathway on lung/nasal epithelial cells?

CoV-2 targets ACE2 receptor on epithelial cells, pneumocytes, as well as nasal cells which seem to be cells of the nervous system (loss of smell is a symptom of Covid). ACE2-Receptor is rather well ...
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Why is the SARS-CoV-2 target receptor ACE2 not endocytosed when bound physiologically?

The COVID-19 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. See, e.g. here. Why doesn’t the enzyme ACE2 — SARS-CoV-2’s target receptor — undergo endocytosis when bound by its ...
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1answer
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The fastest vaccine developed is a mumps vaccine, which took 4 years. Where is the hope that we will find a COVID vaccine in less time?

I understand that doctors and scientists are working hard to find a vaccine, but is there a reasonable chance that we will find one in the time that scientists and politicians are suggesting? I also ...
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Are the y-axis values informative when performing biolayer interferometry?

I am currently reading an this article by Alexandra C. Walls et. al. I would like to ask a question about a graph that is being used in the article and I wanted to know if my analysis was correct. I ...
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Why doesnt the SARS-Cov-2 affect other animals?

Why doesn't the coronavirus affect animals like dogs and cows? I know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus i.e. it can affect both humans and other animals. I also know that the DNA composition ...
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RNA vaccination and Autoimmune Reactions

To my knowledge we do not have any robust experience with RNA vaccination. Most likely this will change in the near future as RNA vaccines against COVID are in the pipeline. The rationale behind this ...
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Is the coronavirus getting less dangerous?

Please note This question is based on data from the UK government's web site (data from the ONS). I am not taking this data as accurate, but am using this as it is the only source of data I can find, ...
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COVID-19 deaths by year of birth?

Are there (global, country, etc.) data of COVID-19 deaths (or hospitalization) by year of birth? I was able to found them only by "age group", the meaning of this being usually an interval ...
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Why do coronavirus cases graphs have a sinusoidal like shape?

Some screenshots from a canadian website: See this sinusoidal shape? Why is it there? Shouldn't it be a single curve? My main guess is when cases are counted: is it possible that they are counted ...
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Biosafety Level 1 (BSL-1) surrogate viruses that show greatest similarity to SARS-CoV-2

I would like to know if there are any viruses that show high similarity to SARS-CoV-2 (particularly in terms of structure) that are very safe to use (i.e., classified as BSL-1). For example, an avian ...
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Are coronaviruses gaining an evolutionary advantage?

So there are 7 known strains of coronavirus that are known to infect humans: 4 that cause the common cold (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1), and 3 that have been known to cause acute respiratory infection (...
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Is a virus a poison?

I've understood that a virus is not a living organism (like e.g. a bacterium). From Wikipedia I get that a poison is a substance that reacts physically or chemically with molecules in the human body. ...
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With the 5$ covid19 test - an antigen test - , would trials (most likely) be independent?

Actual question What would typically cause antigen tests to give a false positive or false negative and would these causes be typically independent (if we run the test twice it won't automatically ...
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What specific markers does a Covid-19 PCR test look for?

I've done a search and can't find anything as to what specifically makes a Covid-19 positive that identifies it as unique. I would expect to see something like this: https://madridge.org/journals-...
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What does the decline of serum antibodies after infection mean for B cell immunity, exactly?

About a month ago there was a small media blip about a report in the New England Journal of Medicine that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 decline significantly within a matter of months. ...