Questions tagged [coronavirus]

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause disease in humans and animals. They are named for the crown-like spike proteins on their surface.

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What is the optimal temperature for Omicron to thrive in?

I have always been under the impression that when sick, you should let a fever run its course. The accepted answer to the question Why do people take drugs to lower a fever? seems to provide some ...
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Can Covid-19 virus be simply filtered out from infected patient’s blood? [closed]

Can Covid-19 virus be simply filtered out from infected patient’s blood? If a Covid+ patient’s blood is passed through a filter, say 100 nm or a system of filters, 100 nm and 500 nm can we isolate the ...
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Does specific immunity affect the incubation period of viruses?

My interest was inspired by the observed variation in incubation times for different strains of Covid-19, however I ask the question in the broader sense as it seems hard to find an answer in general. ...
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How would a virus “evolve” if someone is infected with both the omicron and delta variants at the same time?

If someone is infected with both variants (let’s say within a day or two), what are some of the likely outcomes with respect to the virus “evolution”? is it most likely that only 1 of the 2 variants ...
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How much of TLR 7 agonist is safe for human beings, as it is both linked to development of autoimmune diseases but is also used as Vaccine adjuvant?

This question is motivated by the fact that TLR 7 agonists have been linked to development and acceleration of Lupus-like disease both in animals and human beings. But at the same time, TLR 7 agonist ...
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How much do the COVID vaccines decrease the spread of SARS-CoV-2?

The vaccines targeted at COVID-19 are measured against their ability to reduce the occurrence of the disease, COVID-19 (The Vaccine Efficiency or VE). It does not measure its effect on the underlying ...
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Number of "mutations" in Omicron variant

Currently in the media they say that the Omicron variant has more than 30 "mutations", ie changes in spikes. I find this confusing, because the way I understand a single change in the virus ...
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Slightly different sequences returned by BLASTP

Probably this is very trivial but I am self-learning bioinformatics and I don't know who to ask for this kind of stuff. Also, apparently it is really hard to find information on general topics like ...
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Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

I ain't no biologist, but I came across a paper recently and tried to understand it: SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro My question: Is it a correct ...
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Could Omicron be the variant of a variant?

I read that the newly discovered variant of Covid-19 has a higher number of mutations than the other variants. Isn't it more likely that it is the variant of a variant? It would be absolutely normal, ...
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Evolutionary pressure of vaccines towards a virus

I am trying to understand the following quote from one of the Twitter threads : A change in the spike protein which allows the coronavirus to enter and infect human cells that is radical enough to ...
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Could Sars-CoV-2 vaccines make the immune response less effective against new variants?

Some viral diseases (e.g. influenza and dengue fever) are thought to exhibit original antigenic sin. The immune system remembers viruses that it has been previously exposed to, allowing the body to ...
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Do mutations in a fundamental structure of a virus [Omicron Variant] make it more transmissible?

I am not a microbiologist, nor a virologist so I had a question - in the new Omicron virus variant, a large number of mutations were reported for the protein spike. From my naïve understanding, the ...
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Can the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated?

I am curious to know if the original SARS‑CoV‑2 virus, or any of its variants, can mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated. I am referring to those people who have received all the recommended ...
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How many of each structural component of SARS-CoV-2 are there?

I'm interested in the composition of SARS-CoV-2, including how many copies of each protein are present in an assembled virus, as well as the overall mass and density. There are a few recent papers ...
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New ORFs occurring in SARS-CoV-2 due to mutations

Are there examples of new ORFs in SARS-CoV-2 created by mutations? The ORFs should not be present in the reference virus, but they should occur in a lineage occurring in the wild (at best, being part ...
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COVID-19 exposure risk from passing joggers versus walkers

What is the COVID exposure risk from passing close by someone who is jogging relative to passing close by someone who is walking? The reason I ask is with regard to going out for exercise, or to run ...
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Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

I've found some papers which describe that the viral shedding does not decrease during infection (for fully vaccinated people). But the overall shedding time does decrease. Therefore it is possible to ...
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Extensions of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 variants

What lineages of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 occurring in the wild show some extensions, i.e., mutations of the stop codons to codons encoding amino acids (mutations to another stop codon don't count ...
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Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
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Coronavirus lineages with amino acid insertions

Is there an overview over SARS-CoV-2 lineages that have some insertions in their genomes? Tools based on GISAID sequences do not show them. I am aware of a few lineages with insertions Mu with S:...
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If you catch Covid-19 infection, does it need to become vaccinated after recovery?

When we catch a cold, influenza, or Covid-19, the body starts to produce antibody against them, So the body become immune for a period of time. That means one should not get them until the presence of ...
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How do the lipid nanoparticles in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines contain and release the mRNA payloads at the right time?

The engineering challenge with mRNA vaccines is that mRNA is fragile and degrades quickly. The solution, then, is to encapsulate the mRNA within lipid nanoparticles that carry the payload into cell. ...
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What antibody targets are being tested for in the publicly offered UK antibody test?

In late August 2021 the NHS (UK) offered people who test positive for COVID what is referred to in this BBC report as a “new antibody test”. However, I have been unable to find out what exactly is new ...
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Can Covid's RNA be nullified by an opposite RNA strand?

Firstly, I have scant knowledge of biology, epidemiology, virology, and related fields. If my question seems nonsensical or bewildering, I beg your pardon. I'm not sure how to phrase this, but I'll ...
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How would a "synthetic defective interfering SARS-CoV-2" work in practice? Wouldn't it require a large fraction of all cells to be infected?

The abstract of A synthetic defective interfering SARS-CoV-2 is as follows. Abstract Viruses thrive by exploiting the cells they infect, but in order to replicate and infect other cells they must ...
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Safety of Covid-19 vaccine for pregnant women

Is there any possibility that the protein produced by COVID-19 mRNA vaccine taken into body could cause negative effect for unborn babies? In particular, isn't it possible the protein could be used as ...
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How does the hydrophobic amino acid fuse the corona virus with the host cell membrane?

I am reading the article How the coronavirus infects cells — and why Delta is so dangerous. It describes the fusion process of the virus into the host cell as follows right above an animation ...
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Viral vector vaccines - why doesn't the viral vector get attacked by the innate immune system?

I've been looking at how the Astrazeneca Covid-19 vaccine works: A chimpanzee adenovirus (the viral vector) is injected into the patient. After entering a cell, the viral DNA is deposited in the host ...
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delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

In latest news, it is reported that: if vaccinated people get infected anyway, they have as much virus in their bodies as unvaccinated people. That means they're as likely to infect someone else as ...
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What's happening in the "C" and "T" stripes of a covid test kit?

I have a COVID home test kit which produces C and T (control and test) stripes when the solution is applied to the strip. Something similar happens in pregnancy test kits. I understand the purpose of ...
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Do breakthrough infections spread attenuated virus?

No vaccines are 100% effective, so it's possible that patient A catches Covid-19 even after receiving two doses of vaccine. I understand that the risk is low, and the symptoms will generally be mild. ...
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Recombinations between Distant coronaviruses

With recombination I mean long ones, say > 1000 nucleotides, so that the two parents must be coronaviruses and the two pieces of genomes must have compatible genomic coordinates for the recombinant ...
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Ingredients in Pfizer vaccine

The ingredients in the Pfizer vaccine have been listed in a number of websites, including government healthcare ones. This site claims that the list includes ALL of the ingredients of the vaccine. ...
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Which molecular changes make certain SARS‑CoV‑2 strains more contagious?

Articles often state that certain SAR-COV-2 strains are more transmissible, e.g: Most studies indicate Delta is 50-60% more transmissible than the Alpha variant How dangerous are covid-19 Delta and ...
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Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
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How long will the spike protein from mRNA stay in the body?

Somewhat related to this question,how long will spike proteins produced as a result of mRNA covid 19 vaccines (Pfizer, moderna) stay in the body? How is it expected to be in comparison with adenovirus ...
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What determines the physical appearance of a tangible amount of bacteria or viruses?

As in the title, I was wondering how would feel an amount of one type of bacteria or virus, big enough to have a tangible size of the sample. What color, state (liquid, solid), textures, smell ecc. of ...
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How are gene and DNA linked in this file?

So I am preparing some documents about Sar-Cov2 and I wanted to illustrate the "definition" of the virus with the DNA sequence. I found this sequence in GenBank. Now I think I need an ...
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Virus lineage, strain, and relation to spike protein variants

On the CDC website we have virus lineage which appears to be constant for all cases presented, or am I reading that wrong? Then the different names and of those with different names, different spike ...
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Detection of primer dimer on RT-PCR?

I usually do RT-PCR test for covid-19. Curves for Patients and Positive CTRL mostly appeared at 20 to 25 Ct. Sometimes, there are some curves that emerge at the last 5 cycles. Some argue that they are ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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How long after taking a vaccine shot (Oxford–AstraZeneca) could an individual test negative for antibody (IgM)?

What I know so far about the way this vaccine works is that by encoding virus' biological signature into the vaccine and injecting it into a subject, the subject's immune system would learn to ...
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How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
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mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
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Which cells do mRNA vaccines target?

mRNA vaccines instruct cells to produce spike protein that will trigger an immune response. But which types of cells will it work on? and which cells will it not work on?
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Longevity and extent of transfection after SARS-COV-2 vaccination with Janssen

The Johnson vaccine, unlike the RNA vaccines from Pfizer & Moderna, uses a vector containing DNA encoding for the SARS-COV-2 spike protein. This vector DNA needs to enter the cell, allowing for ...
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Why there is Cp/Ct (crossing point) value for negative sample in COVID-19 RT-PCR?

I am from IT/ Engineering background and have some confusion in RT-PCR. So far my understanding we extract RNA from test specimens and transcribed it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and inside PCR DNA ...
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Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
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why secondary/booster vaccine shots may sometimes induce worse side effects?

Background: I had my first shot about 1.5 months ago, I just had my shot yesterday. Unmistakable fever like symptom started within 4 hours. within 10 hours the whole body started aching, accompanied ...

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