Questions tagged [coronavirus]

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21 views

Testing a COVID-19 vaccine on a large sample space of population from different nationalities

I came across an article few days ago, while checking the number of canditates for vaccines about COVID-19 where Sinopharm's vaccine development's trial phase caught my eye. The article says that: In ...
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Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
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Truncated ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV2! Why? How does it formed?

Across the world so far, we have three truncated ORF3a proteins in SARS-CoV2 in India only. Can you illuminate me how does a protein (here accessory protein of SARS-COV2) generally get such nonsense ...
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How are latence period and duration of infectiosity defined?

I assume that infectiosity of an individual is not a binary property but a quantity that grows and decays gradually, very much like the number of infected or infectious individuals in a population. ...
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1answer
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What kind of people are more likely to catch COVID-19?

It is well known that people of old age or with respiratory problems are more vulnerable by the effects of COVID-19. However, I wasn't able to find information on any similar trends on catching the ...
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How T-Cell recognizes a cell infected by a virus?

According to few articles I read (like BBC about The people with hidden immunity against Covid-19 ): starting out about four or five days after infection, you begin to see T cells getting activated, ...
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1answer
36 views

How close is the U.S. to herd immunity, assuming long-term immunity?

Assuming: infection always results in death or immunity (unproven, but no evidence of repeat infections yet) official COVID-19-related death counts are accurate (142k at the time of this question) ...
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1answer
32 views

Where can we see professional discussions about vaccine development of the covid-19?

Is there any place where people keep talking about the vaccine development professionally? I need the latest news.
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Can we develop a virus which is amicable for us but deadly for SARS-CoV-2 and HIV?

I am not biologist and do not have special education in it etc. It is know that in the wild, some species have their deadly enemies. What I am suggesting is can we humans find/create virus that is ...
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If Covid antibodies disappear after 2-3 months, will a vaccine still be effective?

It looks like there have been studies in China and also in Spain that suggest antibodies don't last very long or could disappear after some time. What does this mean for the effectiveness of a ...
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44 views

About how many covid-19 virus particles is required in the human body before infection and sickness follows?

Our immune systems are often able to destroy germs and virus particles. About how many of them does it take to make a 70 year old healthy male sick ? Any ideas ?
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Do SARS-CoV-2 virus particles really travel through filopodia and “emerge from the tips”?

Watching the new University of California San Francisco video Coronavirus forces cells to produce tentacle-like structures that infect neighboring cells I saw The growths spread out, and ...
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Did most pandemics originate from Asia/China?

This question may be on the borderline of well-posed-ness. Let me ask it. Then please tell me if or where it can be improved. Is it statistically true that the majority of the pandemics or epidemics ...
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For how long viruses survive in non-air moisture environments?

On the Internet there are plenty of information that viruses don't live long after they were exposed to air, after they starting to dry out. But it's hard to find an information on how long viruses ...
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37 views

Can ACE2 receptors be syntesized? [duplicate]

I read that there are labs that can produces the spikes of the coronavirus. I wonder can they also synthesize ACE2 receptors or parts of them? If yes, can they be used as drugs?
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Do person with strong immune system have less chance of surviving SARS-COV-2 attack?

In most of the cases dealing with SARS-COV-2 disease, the major mortality cause is due to cytokine storm in response to Corona-virus that also attack healthy organs causing multiple organ failure. ...
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Are the social-distancing measures implemented against SARS-CoV-2 also suppressing the spread of other viruses?

With social-distancing measures being implemented in many countries I would expect other viruses, like the ones that cause seasonal flus, to have also a hard time propagating in these circumstances. ...
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75 views

VPg priming of the replication of RNA viruses

I'm doing a presentation on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 for my chemistry class, and I found that to replicate its RNA, the virus uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is primed by a VPg primer. ...
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Understand and reproduce withdrawn publication method - Blastp - covid19

I try to reproduce the method of this withdrawn paper. I know this paper has been debunked and withdrawn. I am curious to understand the details of the method used on it. I am a programmer and I don't ...
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106 views

Factors of infection rate

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. Preliminaries The standard SIR model consists of a system of three differential equations $$ds/dt = -\beta s i$$ $$di/dt = \beta s i - \nu i$$ $$dr/dt = \nu i$...
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Does coronavirus survives more on a surface if it's not exposed to air?

Coronavirus survives 72 and 24 hours on hard surfaces (steel, plastic etc) and soft surfaces ( clothes etc) respectively. Does this data change if the surface is not exposed to air? If yes, then by ...
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2answers
36 views

Exact definition of homoplasy?

I am a poor mathematician looking into the Sars-Cov-2 genome. Is there a proper definition of the word homoplasy? Is it just mutations that happened independently or does there have to be indications ...
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Genomic location-coordinate of RdRp of SARS-CoV2

I understand that nsp12 is the RdRp protein in the ORF1 of SARS-CoV2 genome. And nsp12 starts from the starting nucleotide base of orf1ab. Could you please tell me the exact genomic location ...
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1answer
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Triangulation number of the SARS CoV-19 virus

Is the triangulation number of the SARS CoV-19 virus capsid, in the sense of the Caspar-Klug theory, known? In case the Caspar-Klug theory does not apply to it, is it known what is its tiling, in ...
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What coronaviruses have been identified in racoon dogs?

Christian Dorsten says in an (Apr 26) interview in the Guardian that racoon dogs as [intermediate] source of coronavirues have been overlooked (in China): Q: What do we know about that intermediate ...
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110 views

Why is ACE2 not used as drug against covid? [closed]

Can ACE2 be produced and used as drug against covid? I read it is the receptor molecule. If it is in the organism the virus should bind to it and could not attack cells anymore? Is that right?
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Why are men more susceptible to severe COVID-19?

It seems that globally, men are more susceptible to severe COVID-19 than women: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/men-are-much-more-likely-to-die-from-coronavirus-but-why This is seen in ...
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25 views

Who define the SARS-CoV-2 haplotypes?

If you look in this paper https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2006100 they work with several haplotypes of the virus. They claim that the definitions of the haplotypes come from GISAID/...
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Does the cell release the empty capsids?

The virus via the spike of the capsid connects to a receptor in a cell, then the DNA enters the cell wall. My question is what happens to the capsid - does it stay connected to the receptor or is ...
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65 views

Do we know if dogs are asymptomatic transmiters of sars-cov-2?

Dogs do not use mask when going for a walk nor they observe the security distance. On the contrary, they frequently join their noses, and put their noses where other dogs had put them before or had ...
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1answer
77 views

Can/have bacteria been engineered to express ACE 2 receptors?

In light of SARS-COV-2 binding to the ACE 2 protein in human cells, I was wondering if any bacteria exist or could exist that possess this membrane protein. If not, do you believe that an ACE 2 like ...
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COVID-19 Infection rate related to population size?

Recently, in the UK's daily government briefing they started showing the graphs that compare national death rates, adjusted by the population size of each country. I understand the various reasons ...
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Is it possible to force Sars-Cov-2 virus to mutate?

The title may definitely be a stupid question since I have no background in biology. I would like to know if the coronaviruses or any other can be manipulated artificially so that they stop spreading ...
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38 views

How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting? [closed]

I'm writing an experimental proposal as my final paper for my single molecule biophysics class. Part of the procedure I wrote involves intentionally infecting a culture of HeLa cells with SARS-CoV-2 ...
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Why do COVID19 serology tests focus on the nucleocapsid while vaccine efforts focus on the spike?

When I look at the specification sheets for many of today's serology tests like the new Roche test or the Abbott test, they use a nucleocapsid antigen in the test, looking for anti-nucleocapsid ...
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How do PARPs counteract coronaviruses?

I read that [SARS-CoV-2 has] a nonstructural protein called NSP3, a component of which blocks the host’s efforts to fight off the virus. In particular, this protein shuts down host enzymes called ...
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What is the lipid membrane of SARS-CoV-2 made of?

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus: in structural diagrams it is drawn with membrane glycoprotein (M), envelope protein (E) and spike protein (S) embedded in a lipid membrane. What specifically is the ...
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Reasons why this protein is not suitable as an immunogen?

In a paper entitled "Progress and Prospects on Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2", the authors write the following in section 2.5: "Compared with S, N, and M protein, E protein is not suitable ...
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Questions regarding serial passage of virus through animals arising from the paper The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2

In this answer on bioinformatics.stackexchange.com to the question inquiring about the validity of the paper Kristian G. Andersen et al, The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2, the author asserts the ...
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Is the receptor of SARS-CoV-like viruses in bats still unknown?

A fairly detailed 2012 review (Whittaker et al.) on the Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein noted that SARS-CoV-like viruses have been isolated in bats. In this ...
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Is the Alpaca-CoV still the closest known relative of HCoV-229E?

From a 2017 paper that suggests the more distant (and common) origin of both HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 is in African bat coronaviruses, I see that the closest virus most similar to HCoV-229E is Aplaca-...
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How large a part of the corona-virus is coding?

If you find an example of a sequenced string of coronavirus it is about 30.000 long. Looking for example here https://nextstrain.org/ncov/europe you'll see that by far the largest part of this is ...
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Muller's ratchet and viruses

Do viruses suffer from Muller's ratchet? Can it significantly influence the current coronavirus pandemic?
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Could someone explain the join in the SARS-cov-2 genome at location 13468?

I am having trouble understanding the reference sequence for sars-cov-2, NC_045512.2 Three nucleotides equals one amino acid, right? But the nucleotide at position 13468 seems to be used twice, so ...
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How common are the “common” human coronaviruses?

I was listening to a virology expert on the Swedish radio yesterday. He said that there already were several corona viruses among humans that only affected children because basically all the adults ...
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What changes would allow cutting mRNA-based vaccine safety testing to 18 Months

I see a lot of skepticism among my fellow citizens following an interview that Bill Gates gave the BBC on the topic of Corona vaccines. The Gates foundation is funding several study ventures on Corona ...
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Which is more efficient as a germicide: UVC, Ozone or combination and why?

I've read many contradictory info about ozone vs UVC light irradiation and cannot come to a conclusion, I am totally confused. As it commonly known UV germicidal irradiation is very effective against ...
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How do we know that the “original animal exposure event” of a human to the Covid-19 virus occurred between October and December 2019?

In a Yale med page (interview) on Covid-19 from January it is said that The molecular dating of the virus genomes indicates that the original animal exposure event happened sometime between late ...
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What happens to a virus SARS-CoV-2 on an object?

Many articles say that "the coronavirus" — they probably speak of the SARS-CoV-2 — can "remain alive" for so many hours on some surfaces, so many days on some other surfaces. For example, "the virus ...
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Herd immunity without vaccines? (corona question)

Obviously there is herd immunity against many viruses such as measles because of vaccines. Can we say that there is herd immunity against any particular virus even though people are not getting ...