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A receptor is a molecular target for a chemical signal such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or drug. Binding of the signal to the receptor initiates or modulates behaviour in the receiving cell.

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Is there a reason for the lack of full RTK structures?

Bocharov et al. (2013) write that As there are no structures of full-length RTKs [receptor tyrosine kinases], we do not fully understand how different domains function together to mediate signal ...
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At what point are receptor affinities large enough values to be considered irrelevant?

I was reading the receptor values for some drugs like Haldol, Zyprexa, etc. It became clear that Haldol had some affinities 10,000 or higher. Considering how large the numbers are (the smaller ...
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Do muscles and connective tissue have different types of pain receptors?

I assume that muscles have pain receptors ("nociceptors"?) that fire when the muscle is under excessive strain or even tears or becomes injured. I also assume that similar pain receptors exist for ...
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Does anyone know of any resources that detail an extensive number of receptor types, their effects, and signalling pathways?

In a similar manner to this Wikipedia page, although I am not too concerned about the localisation of the receptor, or any known ligands, as I can already access this knowledge easily. https://en.m....
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Why inhbition of RTK will not help in a case of mutant EGF?

I was given the following as an example for a quiz question but i don't understand the answer. Any help will be most welcome: Question: Iressa is a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor. As a young oncologe, ...
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151 views

What is the purpose of the viscous gel in the Pacinian corpuscle?

I have read that 'when the stimulus (in this case pressure) is constantly applied, the gel repositions itself to prevent the formation of an action potential'. I don't really understand what this ...
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What is the purpose of Prostaglandin F2-alpha and the Prostaglandin F receptor in the melatonin cell signaling pathway?

I've been doing a lot of research recently on the melatonin cell signaling pathway for an extra credit project at school. I've included an image in this post, which is a diagram of the MT1 pathway. It ...
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Do cells store information other than permanent (chromosome) information

The brain stores information in neurons (i.e. neural networks), and cells store information in DNA. But with DNA, this is permanent information. There is a lot of potential temporary information in ...
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Are resonances the reason receptors work?

From Visual phototransduction - Wikipedia: When struck by a photon, 11-cis retinal undergoes photoisomerization to all-trans retinal which changes the conformation of the opsin GPCR leading to ...
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21 views

Advantage for the nicotinic receptor of acetylcholine being permeable to both sodium and potassium?

The fact that the nicotinic receptor of acetylcholine is permeable to K+ in addition to Na+ slows depolarisation and requires more work from the Na+/K+ ATPase. What if it could be only permeable to Na+...
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422 views

meaning of binding capacity and binding affinity

Actually, I am unfamiliar to biology, so when I read a thesis, the term "binding capacity" and "binding affinity" are really confusing. Since my major is unrelated to biology, I don't know correct ...
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137 views

Is the Insulin Receptor Considered an Enzyme?

Can we consider insulin receptor an enzyme? In other words, does the insulin receptor have enzymatic characteristics?
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Protein/ligand affinity databases?

Is there any database that contain binding affinities reported in litterature for different proteins and ligands? I have checked uniprot already and it does not seem to included any binding affinity ...
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351 views

Trypsin and Cell Surface Receptors

Can adding Trypsin to mammalian cells affect the expression of or hydrolyze cell surface receptors?
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What are the distinct neurochemical components of sexual pleasure?

Sexual activity is usually described as pleasurable. What neurochemical systems does sex activate? Does the presence or absence of a partner make a difference -- say, in the activation of the ...
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443 views

How does receptor downregulation/upregulation work?

My understanding is that if a cell is flooded with a certain neurotransmitter, it may decrease the density of that neurotransmitter. What I don't understand is how. Is it a direct physical result of ...
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Terminology regarding sensory receptors

I was recently asked the following question: Compare the following pairs of receptors in the same sensory system. Include in your discussion: The distribution in the sensory epithelium;...
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Could all mammalian receptors be described as allosteric?

Allosteric regulation in enzymes is where a molecule binds at a site other than the active site and thus changes the tertiary structure of the active site, hence altering the binding of substrate and ...
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52 views

Does the dissociation of serotonin receptors and their ligands really take hours?

If I understand the principle of neurotransmission correctly, then after binding to a receptor on the postsynaptic side, neurotransmitter molecules must be dissociated from the receptor and removed ...
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Release of Nor-Epinephrine by presynaptic beta receptors

Presynaptic alpha-2 receptors on stimulation decrease the release of nor-epinephrine by certain mechanisms where as activation of beta presynaptic receptors increase or facilitates the nor ...
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Dopamine receptor count: Role and Measurement

Can the Dopamine (DA) receptor count take a significant drop over the course of life or does it stay constant? I read that low D2 (Dopamine receptor type 2) receptor count does not cause Parkinson's ...
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51 views

Density of Receptors of a mammal

I know it's a very open question. It's for a paper. So as a reference I'm looking maybe for the average density of insulin receptors per cell of a human tissue. I want to compare it to the density of ...
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32 views

Do antagonist-receptor complexes get absorbed into the cell?

My understanding is that normally, a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor and then that ligand-receptor complex gets absorbed into the cell and either degraded or recycled. So does the same thing ...
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Why do Hot/Cold drinks taste sweeter once returning to room temperature?

Now, I know this is a very bizarre question, and I tried to find a correct exchange for this, but it might relate to biology/science as it being our taste buds and everything. I am so sorry if there ...
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1answer
51 views

Is tolerance unavoidable?

Do all psychoactive substances induce tolerance eventually? For that matter, do all receptor-binding substances induce tolerance eventually? It seems certain that different substances take different ...
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Is receptor antagonism just long-term binding?

By my understanding, a substance that binds to a receptor and activates it is called an agonist, while a substance that binds to a receptor without activating it is called an antagonist. (Wiki) What ...
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172 views

Which of the three is true for insulin receptors?

I have seen the following question in a Cell Biology exam: Which of the following is true" Insulin has an hydrophobic Signal Peptide and the insulin receptor does not have an hydrophobic Signal ...
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What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?

If the gene for the CD4 receptor was removed, would the person's immune system work normally? Could a new artificial receptor be substituted in place of CD4? Could HIV infection be prevented in this ...
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Can you knockout specific receptors in an adult?

Sorry I don't have a good understanding of this topic, but I'm guessing that "receptor knockout" is related to/a part of "gene knockout"? And If I understand correctly, gene knockout is currently ...
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853 views

Why do we get sleeply after we eat?

After we have eaten, we feel cold and sleepy. I think it's because the maximum blood supply is transferred towards the digestive system so that digestion is done, and therefore the brain to does not ...
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Toll Like Receptors Vs Toll Receptors

What are the major differences between them, apart from one being in humans and other in Drosophilla?
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1k views

How is adrenaline (also known as “epinephrine”) a ligand?

I keep reading that adrenaline is a ligand, however, from what I understand a ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons to a central transition metal ion in a complex. If this is ...
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196 views

What is the essence of difference of how different chemicals affect the same receptor?

It is known that various chemicals can bind to the same receptor type, producing different effects. Be these chemicals agonists or antagonists, there are more variations in how they influence the ...
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What is the lifetime of the vasopressin receptor V2?

I was looking at the production of vasopressin receptor 2, also known as V2R or ADH-R. What I found is that it is coded by the AVPR2 gene and degraded by the Alix protein (source). But I did not get ...
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166 views

Isotretinoin and retinoid receptors in brain confusion?

I am considering starting a treatment with Accutane(Isotretinoin), however I am not sure about what the effects on the brain are. Here are two studies that contradict each other: http://www.ncbi.nlm....
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107 views

Neuroscience behind the crash

After experiencing things like stress, intense exercise, or using drugs such as caffeine and amphetamine, subjects often assume a depressive and lethargic state afterwards, known as a "crash." What is ...
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How many NOD like receptors in Human?

This is pretty specific question maybe. Anybody have an estimate? For Toll Like Receptors there are something like 10... http://www.jbc.org/content/276/4/2551.long I'm only finding NOD1 and NOD2 => ...
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GPCRs: Gi and Gs

GPCR = G-protein coupled receptor Gi = G inhibitory alpha subunit Gs = G stimulatory alpha subunit Are there structural differences between Gi and Gs subunits (secondary structure)? Or is it just ...
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Does suffocation pain involve nociceptors?

I never suffocated myself so not entirely sure, but when you suffocate, it's painful, right? But of course different kind of pain than being injured or sick. What I'm wondering is, if the "painful" (...
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Why is there only adrenoreceptors and no active adrenergic innervation in bronchus and uterus?

Our bronchus and uterus has beta adrenoreceptors, but they have no active sympathetic nervous system innervation in these organs. Was there a sympathetic innervation in trachea and uterus, earlier, ...
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How precisely can we sense temperature differences?

We have thermoreceptors, thus we can sense temperature (both warm and cold). I'm interested in the sensitivity of our thermoreceptors - What is the smallest temperature difference that we can sense? ...
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545 views

Why are skin tactile receptors considered to be phasic receptors?

A phasic receptor by definition is one that quickly adapts to change. In terms of neuron firing, this means that it does not trigger another firing because the receptors are used to the stimulus. But ...
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Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...
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Redheads and pain receptors

I remember reading this in a biology textbook, and decided to do a little digging. Redheads have a lower sensitivity to some pain and a higher sensitivity to other compared to people of other colored ...
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Where do the phosphate units come from when EGF units dimerize?

Upon EGF binding, EGFR units dimerize and cross-phosphorylate. The phosphate groups are transfered to intracellular c-terminal tyrosine rich regions. Where do the phosphate units come from in this ...
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Receptors for red and far-red light in plants: Shade avoidance

Franklin (2009) describes how plants use the ratio of the red wavelength (660-670nm) over the far-red wavelength (725-735nm) (R:FR) in order to avoid shading. My question is: which receptor is ...
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199 views

The mechanism of mechanoreception?

I am interested in knowing the molecular mechanism behind mechanoreception/mechanotransduction (i.e. mechanism behind receptor potential generation on mechanical stimulation). I know that most ...
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2answers
103 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
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Are SLC52A2 and GPR172A really the same?

The official HUGO gene nomenclature page says that GPR172A (Gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor) and SLC52A2 (riboflavin transporter, member 2) are the same. The sequence reported by Andriamampandry seems ...
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If a receptor is inhibited throughout embryogenesis, could there be observable phenotypic differences in the adult?

So I read a journal article entitled "Maternal hypoxia and caffeine exposure depress fetal CV function during primary organogenesis" (Momoi, et al., 2012) and in essence the article speaks of the ...